Ce was linear (graph 6.9) and the constants qm and b were determined from the slope and intercept of the plot. The correlation coefficient obtained with the Langmuir equation was high, which indicated a good fit between the parameters. The dimensionless parameter (RL = 1/(1+bCo)), which is a measure of adsorption favorability, was found to be in the range of 0.03105<1) and confirmed that Chromium(VI) removal using besharam plant at pH 2 and 320c was a favorable adsorption process. Table 6.5: Langmuir isotherm S.no Ce Ce /qe 1 1.2 0.098 2 3.7 0.15 3 8.7 0.25 4 14.6 0.31 5 23.7 0.42 6 33 0.5 Graph 6.9: Ce/qe vs Ce 6.6.2 FREUNDLICH ISOTHERM The freundlich isotherm is defined by the equation Log qe = log Kf + (1/nf) log Ce Where, Kf(g1-1/n L 1/n kg-1 ) → the freundlich constant which indicates the relative adsorption capacity of the adsorbent related to the bonding nf → the heterogeneity factor representing how the adsorption deviates from linearity. The value of ‘n’ as shown in the table lies between 1 and 10, which represents a favorable adsorption.
Phase noise is defined as the ratio of the single side-band power at a frequency offset of from the carrier with a measurement bandwidth of 1Hz to the carrier power [5,6]. If an emission excitation signal or a local oscillation signal contained phase noise, noise will likewise appear in receiving end in signal. Thereby, Signal-to-noise ratio will be descended and error rate will be worsened as a result of the unwanted carrier modulation. Therefore, it is valuable to investigate the phase noise’s detection of oscillator. The existing main detection methods of phase noise are as following, frequency heterodyne method, direct detection method, frequency discriminator method and phase discrim- inator method [7-9].
In the case of B-Line, the current of the generator almost equals to the current in the load. Fig. 4.5 a) Line simulation circuit –b)simulation results - The selected parameters of the delay line correspond to the required phase shift of the load current. The main advantage of B-Line circuit: its ability to transfer a differential (balanced) signal by a single-wire. 5.
Fig. 8 shows the electromagnetic torque, stator flux modulus, motor speed, estimated angle between stator flux and current vectors, and the actual and estimated stator resistance values. In contrast, a negative error in ϕiλ results in a positive error in rs. Fig. 9 shows this behavior at different speeds.
Using a potentiometer this cone can be adjusted to widen or extend the sensing range Beam angles are responsible for spacing between the sensors. The sensors must be spaced so they do not interfere with each other. This interference is sometimes called “crosstalk.” Fig 8. Spacing of Ultrasonic Sensors When more than one ultrasonic sensor is in use, in such applications the following guidelines should only be used as a reference. Fig.9 Spacing
This paper outlines the analysis and comparison of different MEMS electrostatic comb drive structures. Materials having smaller young’s modulus than polysilicon like polyimide and copper are considered for getting large displacement at low actuation voltage. II. DESIGN OF THE ELECTROSTATIC COMB DRIVE Electrostatic comb drive uses the phenomena of electrostatics and has a comb like structure, this is the reason why it is named as an electrostatic comb drive. Some of the basic parameters to design a comb drive is shown in Fig1.
PROPOSED METHODOLOGY The building blocks are 1) Echo generator 2) Difference amplifier 3) Phase shifter 4) Sound processor UPC 1892 A) Echo Generator The input signal of echo generator is acquired from the microphone. The echo generator block generates echo by means of Phase shifters in the given input signal along with delay B) Phase Shifter A phase shifter is microwave network which provides a controllable phase shift of input signal. It provides invariable phase shift with frequency. Phase shifters of angle 90,180,270 and 360 . C) DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER The difference amplifier with LM3 amplifies the difference between two voltages making this type of operational amplifier circuit , a subtractor.
The advantage of the Chebyshev filter is the attenuation between the passband and stopband is much steeper than a Butterworth filter, if both filters are of the same filter order. The disadvantages is that there is a ripple at the passband. The step response offers more ringing than the Butterworth filter. 4.3.3 Selection of Design The Analog laser driver circuit will be used as the chosen design. Since, this circuit is able to
Due to minimum switching device it has a high efficiency. The limitations are the use of a larger filter capacitor and a large inductor than those of a buck regulator. 4.3.3 Buck- Boost Converter A buck boost converter provides an output voltage that may be less than the input voltage-hence the name “buck-boost” the output voltage polarity is opposite to that of the input voltage. This regulator is also known as an inverting regulator. The circuit arrangement of a buck-boost regulator is shown in fig4.4 Fig 4.4 Buck-Boost Converter (4.3) where LC is the critical value of the inductor.