Basic Principles and Modes of Capillary Electrophoresis Harry Whatley 1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS 1.1. Fundamentals of Electrophoresis Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a special technique that uses an electrical field in order to separate the components present in a mixture. Electrophoresis in a capillary can be differentiated from other types of electrophoresis that it is done within the walls of a narrow tube. To understand the functioning of molecules influenced by an electrical field inside a capillary it is important to know the phenomena that result from the geometry of a capillary.
1831- Using his invention the induction ring, Michael Faraday proved that electricity can be induced (made) by changes in an electromagnetic field. Faraday’s experiments about how electric current works, led to the understanding of electrical transformers and motors. This experiment became Faraday’s Law, which became one of the Maxwell Equations (Administrator, 2007). 1890 - Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) a German physicist, laid the ground work for the vacuum tube. He laid the foundation for the future development of radio, telephone, telegraph, and even television.
This occurs because the angle at which the rays hit the boundary (called the angle of incidence) determines the angle at which the rays will refract (called the angle of refraction). Light rays are measured from the normal, not from the medium boundary. Snell’s law shows a mathematical relationship between the light’s angles of incidence and refraction, and the refractive indices of the media it travels through: n1sinθ1=n2sinθ2 Where: θ1=angle of incidence θ2=angle of refraction n1=index of refraction of first medium
Again we will use ρ=m/V in order to calculate the density of water. Experimental technique The first part of experiment is done in following steps: The second part of experiment is done in following steps: Results The density of water by using hydrometer: 1. 26.5 °C room temperature 2. 37.8 °C and 36.3 °C 30-40 °C 3. 41.7 °C and 40.2 ° C 40-50 °C 4.
Colorimetric method –instrument and application Introduction: - Colorimeter is device which is used to measure transmittance and absorbance of light passing through a liquid sample. It is a light sensitive device. Principle: - Colorimeter works on the principle of Beer-Lambert’s Law. Beer-Lambert’s Law states that when visible light from a natural or artificial source falls on a colored homogenous medium contained in a glass container, the color of the medium is the complementary color of the light that has been absorbed by the medium. During this interaction between the medium and the radiation, a portion of light is absorbed by the medium, a portion is reflected and the rest is transmitted.
Introduction of NMR spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a form of absorption spectroscopy by which a nuclei under investigation absorbs the energy from an external magnetic field and resonances or excites from a low energy state to a high energy state. It involves the disintegration of spin state into two spin states of unequal energy. The emerging radiofrequency is absorbed in a magnetic field resulting to the magnetic properties of the nuclei which getting up from the axial spin. Hence, different NMR absorption spectrum can be obtained which contains one to several groups of absorption lines in the radiofrequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum depends on the particular nucleus. Apparently, the location of peaks
Trichromacy theory supposes there are three cone types with different spectral sensitivities and that the perceived colour is determined by the cone output depending on the wavelengths of light absorbed from the image. If two physically different lights evoke the same responses in the 3 cones then the two lights will look the same (metamers). This is how trichromacy explains the existence of
4.2 Physical Analysis 4.2.1 Density Test Table 4.1 shows, the samples of undoped calcium phosphate pellets using various sintering temperature. From the experiment, different sintering temperatures are used such as 1000ºC, 1100ºC and 1200ºC. Each sintering temperature have five samples are being used to measure the density of the samples. After analysis, the average density will be collect and recorded. The summary that can get from the table is the mean density for 1000ºC, 1100ºC and 1200ºC sintering temperature is 3.24, 3.26 and 3.25 each respectively.
An increment of 3cm for every x coordinate (x=0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15) and voltage readings of .25, .30, .50, .75, and 1.00 will be measured. Below are two tables (because two different metal plates are used) of data that illustrate the voltage readings collected during the experiment. The readings on the voltmeter measure the electric potential of two different charge distributions and this measurement can be used to find the electric field. Electric field lines starts on a positive charge and end on a negative charge. The number of electric field lines tells us the amount of
Here in this case that eye lid act as the sliding electrode and also as a bridge that to connect the scalp to the positively charged cornea. As the eye lid slides over the eye ball that cornea bearing positive charge then eye lid picks up the potential from the positively charged cornea thus, the charge of the cornea potential imposed to the nearby electrode and it become more positive, it makes downward deflection in the EEG graph. II-Methods for the removal of ocular artifacts There are many methods proposed that to remove the ocular artifacts from the recordings of the EEG. Here is the study of some methods to eliminate these artifacts 1) Eye Fixation Method. As the artifacts are formed using the eye ball movements and the eye blinks, it is proposed (Hillyard and Gallambos 1970) that the patient or the subject is asked to stop the movements caused by the eye and can asked to close eyes intentionally.