Following the gentle explosions of the pre shield stage, the submarine phase begins with pillow lava eruptions. The volcano slowly makes its way up to sea level and the submarine phase ends when it is shallowly submerged. The explosive phase begins when the volcano breaches the surface. Upon contact to air, a large amount of steam is produced and the lava becomes volcanic ash. Following the explosive phase is the subaerial stage which primarily consists of the “shield” shape forming and landslides.
Altogether, temperature, density, and convection currents work together to cause an earthquake. The layer of the Earth are made up of the lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, and the core. In the lithosphere, there is the upper rigid mantle, oceanic crust, and continental crust. The oceanic crust and continental crust is what makes up the lithosphere. Inside these layers, temperature and density all play a role in the layers of the Earth.
The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a volcano into it’s own magma chamber in the North Western edge of Wyoming. Calderas are cool, I’ll give you that. But do you know what’s even cooler? A supervolcano. Supervolcanoes are even more powerful than regular volcanoes.
Tsunamis happen when the plates on the crust of the earth move, therefore moving the entire plate so that the water rises and is pushed forward, therefore causing a tsunami (Drohan, 2009, p.21). These tectonic plates are everywhere, under everything from the biggest mountain to the smallest hill. Though it is infrequent, volcanoes have been known to cause tsunamis. It happens when to volcano begins to erupt, but instead of coming out from the top of the volcano a lateral blast shoots out from the side. Next, a quickly moving avalanche of lava pours into the water near it causing the wave to travel to distant coastlines (Springer, 2005).
Iceland was created by a hotspot, much like Hawaii, and due to a combination of hot spot activity and plate tectonics, Iceland has undergone many geologically processes. The mantle plume itself is traveling toward the northwest part of the island, creating amazing geological features as it goes. Some of Iceland’s unique features include volcanoes, geysers, lava fields, rift valleys, hot springs, and subglacial volcanoes. Currently Iceland has over 20 active volcanoes. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the mantle plume create earthquakes and new volcanoes.
Aerial Island is located along a convergent plate boundary between an oceanic plate and a continental plate. When a oceanic plate converges with a continental plate, the denser oceanic plate would subduct under the less dense continental plate At the subduction zone, the tip of the solid mantle material melts and form magma Pressure causes the magma to rise through any cracks in the continental plate Rising magma builds up pressure in the magma chamber The build-up of pressure in the magma chamber forces the magma up onto the plate surface. The lava cools and solidifies, eventually forming a volcano.
Hawaii was molded from underwater volcanoes. Off of the coast of California, the island of Santa Catalina was rising due to earthquakes beneath the surface. “It began rising… as a result of heightened earthquake activity”(Los Angeles Times Santa 2). The earth constantly
The earth wasn’t always solid. Billions of years ago it was a blob of magma floating in space. Over time the surface cooled, but the centre remained molten rock. The pressure and heat broke the surface into plates that float on a sea of magma below. These plates are constantly moving, drifting apart creating divergence boundaries and crashing together creating convergence boundaries, colliding with the power to forge mountains, and splitting solid rock like it was paper.
Aerial volcano lies at the convergent plate boundary between an oceanic and continental plate. It is believed to have been formed through the process of subduction. When the two plates converge, the denser and thinner oceanic plate gets bent, or subducted, beneath the lighter and thicker continental plate. The magma rises, becoming lava when it reaches the Earth’s surface. When the lava cools, it forms rock.
Tidal waves can likewise be created by submerged volcanic ejections. Volcanic emissions are another catastrophic event, and they are brought on by magma getting away from inside the earth. A blast happens, discharging the magma from a bound space, which is the reason there are frequently likewise gigantic amounts of gas and tidy discharged amid a volcanic emission. The magma goes up within the well of lava, and spills out over the encompassing territory as
Earthquakes affect not only the Earth, but people and the property on it. To start off, Earth’s continents slide on a liquid molten mantle which cause them to collide and separate, forming new landforms. Animals that lived together before now become deserted from one another and may even live on different continents. When two continental plates meet, volcanoes erupt and mountains form. Earthquakes tear open the Earth in large jagged gashes tracing miles across its surface.