This term focuses on mass population which deflects from the individual issues which attribute to the creation of these groups. “Social classes make up all class situations within which individual and generational mobility is easy and typical -Roth and Wittich t1968, p.302 (pg.217Social Inequality). Status can be described an individual or groups ability to acquire resources through means of consumerism. “Status groups are ranked in terms of the consumption of goods as represented by special styles of life” (pg. 218 Social Inequality).
Social identity began with existence of human beings as various studies have shown. According to George Orwell (1945), “all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others” clearly shows that even then, some animals behaved in a different way since they belonged to a different group (ingroup) and this affected their relationship with other groups (outgroup). Orwell in his book explained the different classes and groups that existed and how these affected the intergroup behavior. Tajfel and Turner’s (1986) social identity theory asserts that a section of an individuals’ behavior arises from the groups to which that individual is associated with. The interpersonal behavior is always influenced by the intergroup behavior.
Psychologists are debating and trying to figure out whether the social identity theory, a theory developed by Tajfel Turner (1979) for the examination of intergroup relations, is a robust way of explaining behaviour. There has been many research studies in the past that proves that it is a robust way of explaining behaviour. Social identity theory explains human behaviours such as in-group favouritism, and ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is the act of believing that one’s social group is centrally important, and that all other groups are below them on the social pyramid. In this case, one will judge other groups on their ethnic group, language, religion and behaviour.
Attitude is “a favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone, exhibited in one’s beliefs, feelings or intended behavior” (Myers, 2010 as cited in Narváez, Elena, Gómez & Antonio, 2017, p. 23). In learning a second language, attitude is of two different types: attitudes towards
McLeod explains, “positive attitude allows us to predict what is likely to happen, and so gives us a sense of control. Attitudes can help us organize and structure our experience” (Mcleod). Frank adding the photographs to an otherwise dire situation brought her room to light. The pictures she chose set the mood for her drastic experience to come. The way you act also gives people an idea of the type of person you are.
Practically, it has also not been proven whether there is positive correlation between in-group and out-group assessments. Managing numerous identities such as religion, race and politics in the multi-cultural society to come up with a harmonious social identity is still a challenge to Social Identity Theory. Finally he proposes that Social Identity Theory should try to explain tool, both theoretical and methodological, that may assist in understanding the operation of social identity processes in an automatic level, how it happens and the likely effect for attitudes and behavior in a controlled
The study of these students with modal age of 16 years, reveal that socio-economic status of the parents influence students’ in secondary school education involvement. In another setting, Khan and Jemberu, (2002) studie the influence of family and socioeconomic background on educational achievement and occupational aspirations of high and low achieving adolescents. The sample consisted of 80 students selected from 4 four socio-economic status. These are the high, middle, low and lower classes. Results showed that the impact of socioeconomic background on educational achievement was not
Al-Mamun, Rahman and Hossaim (2012) define this term as a psychological structure that defines a particular behavior. Brown (2001) (cited in Inal, Elvin, Saracaloglu , 2005), the attitude is characterized by the majority of emotional involvement in the feelings of self, in the relationship in the community. On the other hand, unless students have a positive attitude, and attitudes may come from life experience, learning will not come easily. Therefore, attitude can affect the success or failure of learning, it plays a vital role. According to Ajzen ( 2005), like any personality trait, attitude is a hypothetical structure that is directly unobserved.
It has been observed that the falling academic standard and the influencing factors include the economic and financial status of the parents. Just having a look at the present economic situation of the country, many poor parents do send their children to go and do pity household work before going to school. These children were confused on that they can help and support their family through that. Memon (2010) in his study revealed that majority of students whose parents were well educated perform better in matriculation examination as compared to those students whose parents were less educated or
Therefore, attitude deals with a way via which one behaves towards someone or in a situation, in particular, when this indicates how someone feels. Although they have received a fundamental importance in many recent studies, not all the aspects and features of attitude