What is the Mind? Introduction To try and explore the ‘mind’ it is necessary to examine if the mind and the brain are separate or if the mind and body are distinct from one another? Is the mind and body separate substance or elements of the same substance? Is consciousness the result of the mechanisms of the brain, wholly separate from the brain or inextricably linked?
The example of metaphorical expression connected with mind being an entity is approached from two disparate perspectives. Those perspectives provide two contrasting ideas of how the term mind can be treated in both instances. Each perspective is concentrated on separate factor of human’s psychological background. A concept of mind being a machine creates a comparison between the brain and the specific characteristics of the functioning processes connected with machines. In other words, due to such concept human mind is treated as machine.
In “Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons,” Derek Parfit purposes that we as humans should separate what we consider identity and survival. Parfit’s strongest argument towards his claims is that there is no continual existence of the definite ego or personal identity. He supports some of his beliefs by contrasting Egos Theory to the Bundle Theory, a theory suggesting that our minds are a collection of none cohesive properties, related only by our consciousness and resemblance, with the studies of imaginary patients who may suffer from disorders known as split-brain cases. In this paper, I will argue that Derek Parfit’s validations for the support of the Bundle Theory should be questioned by their theoretical nature with no possible way to
Compare the Behaviourist and Psychodynamic Approaches to Psychology Before comparing the behaviourist and the psychodynamic approaches to psychology it is important to familiarise oneself with the background details of each approach. First the identification of each of their methods of investigation is essential. John B Watson (1878-1958) is thought to be the founder of behaviourism. Behaviourism is concerned with the aspects of the human behaviour that can be observed and measured. Watson believed that people are born with a certain amount of reflexes and the person’s behaviours are the result of their environment.
The argument of whether or not a human has a soul has been argued throughout centuries. Derek Parfit discusses two separate theories of personal identity, Ego Theory and Bundle Theory. The argument of which present a more accurate account of personhood is very hard to determine. The Ego Theory has some flaws such the soul is separate from the body and is a immaterialist object within us. Bundle Theory is reinforced and proven by the split-brain case, however it can lead to the argument that there is no self.
In its most general sense, Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning developing as a result of the ideas and beliefs shared by a group of people who has influenced educators’ view of learning. The term behavioral psychology refers to a psychological approach which principally concerned with stimulus-response activities and emphasizes the role of environmental factors in a learning process, to the exclusion of own free will. There is a tenet of behavioral psychology that “only observable, measurable, an outward behavior is worth investigating” (Bush, 2006, p. 14). Historically speaking, behaviorism was originated in the 1880s and develops gradually in the twentieth-first century and beyond. Skinner and
Identity comes from the Latin root idem (identitas) meaning the oneness or a state of being the same, and has been used in English since the sixteenth century. It has a technical meaning in algebra and logic and has been associated with the perennial mind-body problem in philosophy. The meaning of identity in this philosophical context is close to its meaning in ordinary usage, which is given as follows by the Oxford English Dictionary: the sameness of a person or thing at all times or in all circumstances; the condition or fact that a person or thing is itself and not something else; individuality, personality. Personal identity (in Psychology), is the condition or fact of remaining the same person throughout the various phases of existence;
The Skinner box was one of Skinner’s most famous experiments and it fulfilled the goals of psychology, which are to describe, explain, predict and control behavior. In contrast, Freud’s theory of human behavior is not scientific. The theory was formulated basing on Freud’s observations of his patients overtime. It cannot be replicated making it impossible to prove the existence of such constructs as the id, ego or superego. Freud also believed that human behavior has biological bases influenced by the id. Although he failed to prove that human behavior has biological bases, he believed that it would be proven in time.
Introduction Throughout the history of concepts such as behaviourism and the psychodynamic approach, there are many similarities yet there is also a variety of underlying differences between both approaches. The writer will compare and contrast these methods of investigation. By juxtaposing events, an in depth analysis will be analysed to further ones knowledge of each approach. Behaviourism
He provides criteria of personal identity through time that consist of the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. He considered personal identity to be based on consciousness (memory and experience) and not on the physical matter of the body. He argued that many people hastily identify the physical brain with consciousness. The body and the brain are physical objects; therefore, it is subject to change whilst consciousness consistently remains the same. Consequently, personal identity is not located in the brain, but in consciousness.
Behaviourism tries to explain behaviour without including organisms thoughts and feelings. Classical conditioning was the main method used by behaviourists to explain those behaviours. Classical conditioning showed how an organism develops reflexes in response to a stimuli that has been previously learned. Behaviourism developed even further when skinner identified a different method of learning which he named operant conditioning. Operant conditioning was learning that took place as a result of the consequences of the organisms action. Behaviourism was found by a psychologist named John B. Watson who didn’t believe in learning that went beyond the observable stimuli and response. Behaviourists believed that an organism can only learn tasks
The divide between dualism and physicalism is a driving philosophical question in the discussion of the nature of mind and body. While dualists argue that the mind is an immaterial substance that transcends extension, physicalists believe that everything is physical or supervenes on the physical. A common form of physicalism is set forth in the type-identity thesis, which asserts that every type of mental state is identical to a type of physical state. The token-identity thesis is another, much narrower form which only equates an individual thought to an individual brain state. Physicalism comes to mean that there is nothing in the world that is not physical.
Freud argues that the unconscious molds the personality as it accommodates the id, the ego, and superego (Freud, 1962). Essentially, the id is primitive and is widely believed to already exist at the time of birth. It acts on the pleasure principle, which thrives on hedonism and abstains from pain. However, the id is detached from reality so it can only obtain gratification indirectly such as through reflex actions and mental images (Morris & Maisto, 2013).