3.0 Part B: Structural Frames 3.1 Portal Frame in Steel Function The function of portal frame in steel is to lower the load strength by distribute the loads from the super structure, and expansion it to a great area so that the strength of the load will not over the safe bear the weight of capacity. Special foundation measure hold back the distress in the super structure, due to expand or contract of the sub soil because of humidity movement in something matter of soils. Lastly, it offer provision of level surface, so that the super structure can be construct on top of the foundation. It can support loads from the super structure and transfer it to the ground. Material and Method used There are rarely ways applied to build a steel portal
I had to design a 30 storey residental structure in ETABS and SAP as well as performed VBA modeling in Excel to obtain the Center of Rigid (COR) of the building to optimize steel requirements from the effect of torsion. Also, I was assigned to design two foundation types: shallow foundation and reinforced concrete pile foundation. Additionally, I had to prepare and delivered presentation on the importance of quality checks and safety at the construction site. Armed with sound training in basic theories and applied technology, I put them into pratice by participating many summer interships. These practical experiences gave me opportunities to involve in all practical steps in design and construction of structures.
Even though the concrete material is strong in terms of compression it is weak in tension. If the tensile strength is weak, the bottom surface of the concrete will fail. To compromise, steel is usually used inside concrete to strengthen and improve the tensile strength of concrete material. While doing this process, it is important for the steel material to have necessary deformations that are required to support strong bonding of the materials and locking between two structures. When steel is surrounded by concrete mass, it becomes an important part of two materials thus forming Reinforced Concrete.
The beams are said to be simply supporting the structural forms since there is no conveyance of moments all through the support. Bridges can be made in a simple manner depending on what they are used for and the place where they will be used. Examples of very easily constructed bridges are clapper bridges where a stone slab or wood plank is laid across a river and log bridges where a log is used as the bridge and placed across a stream. However, these methods have become outdated and with
Earthquake engineering has become an important aspect of structural engineering, especially after the recent seismic incidents that took place in Chile, Mexico or New Zealand. These events shook the engineers from within and they are now expected to deliver stronger structure that can withstand such hazards. With latest tools and technology and of course BIM analysis methods, it will now be easier for engineers to design or build more earthquake resistant buildings. So what is seismic analysis and how can BIM analysis aid engineers for it? Calculating the response of a building structure during earthquake is what seismic analysis method is all about.
Concrete materials are still a dominant material for construction due to its advantages suchas workability, low cost and fire resistance as well as its low maintenance cost. It is formed from a hardened mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and some admixture. Massive exploration of the natural resources for producing concrete affect to the environment condition and global warning. We have responsibility to reduce the effect of the application of concrete materials to environmental impact. The concrete should be used as efficient as possible.
A truss bridge is economical to construct owing to its efficient use of materials. FIG:2.1.2 2.1.3CANTILEVER BRIDGE Cantilever bridges are built using cantilevers—horizontal beams supported on only one end. Most cantilever bridges use a pair of continuous spans that extend from opposite sides of the supporting piers to meet at the center of the obstacle the bridge crosses. Cantilever bridges are constructed using much the same materials & techniques as beam bridges. The difference comes in the action of the forces through the bridge.
There are many types of concrete available to us, created by varying the proportions of the main ingredients. Several materials are used to produce a good quality concrete. They are all important because they impart strength and durability to the concrete. Proportioning a concrete mix for a given purpose is thus the art of obtaining a suitable ratio of the various ingredients of concrete with the required properties at the lowest cost. Poor compaction and improper curing will lead to porous concrete with low strength and high permeability.
A structural engineer needs to develop an effective lateral load resisting system, which would prevent collapse and damage to life and property. In the event of an earthquake, the structure is subjected to lateral forces which are generated by the structure’s inertia resisting motion. These forces can be very high in magnitude. To design a structure to remain elastic during earthquake would be impractical and uneconomical. A number of techniques and
The construction methodology is the same with elastomeric bearings; however, the damping is increased by adding carbon block and other fillers. In addition, it has an adequate resistance to service loads. The damping characteristic is in between hysteric and viscous. The energy dissipation is linear and quadratic for hysteric and viscous, respectively. The energy absorption capability help reduced the earthquake energy transmitted to the superstructure.