Strain and Deviance: an empirical test of General Strain Theory of in a Philippine Public University LITERATURE REVIEW Theoretical Background During the past decades, various criminologists developed different theories in an attempt to explain the causes of crime within the society. In return they were successful, as of today it was adopted or accepted, indeed all of theories explain the root causes of crime. One of these theories is anomie or strain theory which originally argues that the lower class frustration to higher class causes crime (Merton, 1938) in attempt to explain why majority of the people who commits crime are lower class. In 1985 Robert Agnew a sociologist come to an interest of studying the theory and finds a potential for the theory in explaining several causes of crime in society, but due to its limitation he developed and reformulated the theory to widen its dimension or scope. After revising the theory he come up into General strain theory of crime and builds its foundation in 1992.
Throughout history, disputes and tensions between law enforcement officials and communities of minorities have endured hostility and violence between each other. Racial profiling has become a “hot topic” for researchers as well as for politicians and by now it is likely that most citizens are at least aware of the common accusations of racial bias pitted against law enforcement (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Communities of color are being discriminated against and racially profiled by white police officers for any suspicion of criminal activities. It has been widely assumed by policy makers and citizens alike that allegations of racial profiling are mostly associated with the policing practices of white officers and their treatment of racial and ethnic minorities (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Also, individuals of minority descent will certainly recognize that they are being racially profiled during a stop that is being conducted by a white police officer.
In magazine advertisements, it has been tested that sexual objectification occurs more frequently for women than for men and that women are 3 times more likely to be dressed in a sexually provocative manner. (Psychology Today) Men objectifying women leads to their misunderstanding of consensual sex. A judge in 2016 referring to the woman who was raped once stated, “They made their intentions
New Orleans has been facing violence problems for many years. Some of the most common crimes are rape, murder, armed robbery, non-negligent manslaughter, and aggravated assault. It appears like some people have gotten used to seeing so much violence and some have even come up with ways to remember the names of the victims. The question that many people ask themselves is, “why is violence increasing?” According to Patrick Fagan propensity to crime develops in three stages associated with psychological and sociological factors. The first stage comes from early infancy; meaning that if the child was not given love and instead was rejected it will have a huge impact in the future.
Some examples of an unwanted child may be among teen moms, single moms, and rape cases which may increase crime rate if these women were forced to have children and failed to give them a superb upbringing. High incarceration rate is used by Levitt and Dubner as one of the background reasons why crime has dropped since the 90’s (the background with abortion being their main reason). According to Levitt and Dubner, “Harsh prison terms have been shown to act as both deterrent (for the would-be criminal on the street) and prophylactic (for the would-be criminal who is already locked up).” (123) They use several pieces of evidence for this showing definite crime drop when more people were put behind bars; however, a lot of evidence used with this theory is conceded by the complete opposite idea. Levitt and Dubner used the study “On Behalf of a Moratorium on Prison Construction” (123) to counter and, in the end, strengthen their theory of incarceration rates. This literature review will answer the following question: Do high incarceration rates in fact deter criminals from commiting crimes and, if there is a link, how big of an impact do they
Reiman’s discussion of crime in America begins with looking at the high crime rates and reviewing the excuses people make for this high rate. One of the main excuses that Reiman argues against is that “We’re too soft”. The US currently has the highest number of incarcerated individuals in the world, a lot of whom are minorities (not very soft). In a New York Times article written by David Brooks, he discusses how
Hate Crime in the United States is a growing epidemic. "Hate crime" generally means a crime against persons or property motivated in whole or in part by racial, ethnic, religious, gender, sexual orientation and other prejudices. Politicians, journalists, interest groups, and some criminologists insist that the United States is experiencing an across-the-board hate crime epidemic. Race, religion, and sexual orientation are three of the leading targets of hate crimes that improved since before but need further resolutions. Hate crimes attempted due to race have always been an issue of great controversy since the conception of the the United States of America.
Miller’s article “Lower class culture as a generating milieu of gang delinquency” the focal concerns theory explain what each of the six focal concerns focuses on. Trouble in the focal concerns theory refers to the behavior of acting in a matter that brings conflict for the person with people in authority, such as police officer, as well as those in the middle class of society (Miller, W. B. 1958, pg.8). For men trouble tends to have a major focus on fighting, “sexual adventures with women”, and for women it represents sexual involvement that yield unwanted consequences, such as an unplanned pregnancy (Miller, W. B. 1958,
used a mixed-method design to test the sexual harassment among U.S. middle school students (176). In the research, they used “The 14-item AAUW Sexual Harassment Survey” to measure the frequency of unwanted sexual harassment. Sexual harassment occurred most frequently in hallways, followed by classrooms. Girls and boys reported different people as perpetrators. From the survey, we can know that there are six types of the most upsetting unwanted incidents: (1) verbal - homophobic language; (2) verbal - sexual commentary and sexual rumor spreading; (3) physical – being touched; (4) pulling down pants; (5) being sexually assaulted; and (6) dismissiveness of victimization.
Crime is defined as an act that violates the constitution such as theft, assault, drugs/alcohol offense, curfew violations, and murder. Despite being punishable by law, many people still commit these crimes including teenagers. Teenagers should be punished for their crimes because they have the capability of recognizing their responsibility as a good citizen in the society. They are old enough to know the consequences of every action they make. According to The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), teenagers are more likely to commit crimes compared to adults.
It seems that he knows about how police works and knows exactly how the systems for sex offenders name made public works. Shneider discuss with us something that a lot of people thing is unfair; How now a days every little thing you do like send pictures of yourself to your boyfriend, makes you a sex offender, people are worried that America’s sex laws often are too harsh for the offense. And so he said that after a sex offender is released from prison or probation, they put the person’s risk assessment. They are rated as to whether they’re a low, a medium, or high risk. And talks about how the newspaper only publishes the names of those the state says pose a reasonable risk of repairing their crimes.
Beside restorative justice, mass incarceration acts as another solution to decrease the amount of crime, yet it should be limited. There has been a longstanding debate over the effectiveness of correctional institutions. Some argue that incarceration deters offenders while others argue that the experience of being incarcerated causes individuals to continue in their life of crime. According to Bruce Western, a professor of sociology and director of the Malcolm Wiener Center, the drastically increase amount of incarceration resulted from problems such as harming prisoners, families, and social groups. He indicates, “Black are seven times more likely to be incarcerated than whites, and large racial disparities can be seen for all age groups and
In “Turning off the School-to-Prison Pipeline,” Henry Wilson notes that the zero-tolerance policy has become a significant contributor to the raised number of young individuals being marked as a failure and eventually lead up to belonging in the justice system. Schools have become one of the biggest contributors to the raised number of young individuals being sent to prison in America. “Prisons spawn a new generation of future prisoners: there are more than two million children with at least one incarcerated parent, and these youth are five times more likely to end up in prison themselves” (49). Due to the 80’s and 90’s increased crime rate, people began to fear those in urban areas leading to the increased penalties for juvenile offenders.
The percentage shows that most of the time the suspect is someone else who commits the crime or it is a racial crime. There is a huge difference between the justice system now comparing it to back in the day. Now the law enforcement and the justice system have more resources to make sure that every evidence they have is accurate. According to NBC News, 93 percent are men, and 7% are women; about 50% are African American 38% are white , 2% are Asian and 11% are Hispanic. This tells us that more black man might be in danger of getting charged with false confession compare to any other