Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal muscles of the body. It occurs when communication between nerve cells and muscles becomes impaired. This impairment prevents crucial muscle contractions from occurring, resulting in muscle weakness. Normally when impulses travel down the nerve, the nerve endings release a neurotransmitter substance called acetylcholine. Acetylcholine travels from the neuromuscular junction and binds to acetylcholine receptors which are activated and generate a muscle contraction. In myasthenia gravis, antibodies block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the muscle contraction
Anti-hypertensives function to lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Different classes of medications act in different ways to lower blood pressure. Some medications lower blood pressure by decreasing fluid volume, some reduce peripheral resistance, and others reduce cardiac output. Some medications use a combination of the three.
Skeletal muscle, attached to bones, is responsible for skeletal movements. The peripheral portion of the central nervous system (CNS) controls the skeletal muscles. Thus, these muscles are under conscious, or voluntary, control. The basic unit is the muscle fiber with many nuclei. These muscle fibers are striated (having transverse streaks) and each acts independently of neighboring muscle fibers.
Throughout the world, bullying has increased rapidly over the years. Bullying has been around for many years, and has caused many issues: suicidal attempts, depression, and emotional outrage. While in elementary school, I do not remember gaining knowledge about bullying, and the negative impacts it has on others. However, I have seen loved ones suffer from bullying, and attended funerals of loved ones whom committed suicide. So, therefore, bullying has impacted this world in a negative way, which allows us to fight for the stop of bullying.
DICOM is a communication standard which was originally defined for data exchange in radiology information systems. It is maintained and expanded by working groups (WG) in order to follow new development in radiology but also to extend its usage into other clinical domains (Treichel, Gessat, Prietzel, & Burgert, 2011).
Eww math class. It all started in the 9th grade with my Algebra 2 teacher, myself, and Algebra 2. To this day this class is the reason I have a strong dislike towards Math class. Never in my life have I ever experienced being stuck between a rock and a hard place with useless help. My grade wasn’t bad but it wasn’t a grade that I was use to. So when I started Pre-Calc my life and G.P.A. died.
Inhibits the transport of calcium into myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in inhibition of excitation contraction coupling and frequent contraction.
Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis is a congenital autosomal dominant disorder. This means that the disorder starts at the time of birth. It also means that it only takes one parent with the disorder to pass it down to the offspring. The only way a horse will not be affected by the disease is if they are homozygous recessive for the gene.
The AP travels along the sarcolemma and into the T-tubules where voltage sensors called Dihydropryridine (DHP) receptors cause Ca2+ to be released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the muscle cell cytoplasm. Sliding filament theory describes how myosin interacts with actin to contract the sarcomere. Ca2+ binds to the troponin of the thin actin filament, shifting the tropomyosin off of the myosin-binding sites. The myosin head then binds the actin and forms a cross-bridge. The myosin is also bound to ADP. Once the cross-bridge is formed, the ADP is released, triggering a power stroke, in which the myosin pulls on the actin, and the two filaments slide across each other, shortening the sarcomere. ATP binds the myosin head and the myosin dissociates
Proteins play a very important role in the human body. Our everyday lives are dependent on proteins functioning correctly. The human body contains many many proteins that must all work together perfectly or problems can occur. There are several different types of proteins also in the human body, but the one being focused on will be the Calcium Pump protein, which is located in mainly muscle cells (Klabunde, 2010). The calcium pump works by pumping calcium out of the cell (Klabunde, 2010). It is very important for for there not to be too much calcium inside the cell to ensure cell signaling functions correctly (Klabunde, 2010).
CFTR is a plasma membrane protein that regulates the level of chloride and sodium in normal cells. When there is a mutation in the CFTR gene, it is not able to function properly leading to a build-up of abnormally thick mucus, caused by the dead inflammatory cells increasing its viscosity, in the body’s passages.
The pituitary gland is a pea sized region of specialized endocrine cells and neurons located behind the optic chiasm and enclosed in a bony structure called the sella turcica, or Turkish saddle. Although the pituitary is often called the “master gland” of the endocrine system, that label is more appropriate for an adjacent area of brain known as the hypothalamus. As 19th century scientists deciphered the anatomy and physiology of the central nervous system and endocrine glands, the role of the pituitary gradually became clear.
Endurance exercise refers to a type of exercise that consists of regular, repetitive, and constant movements that involve same large muscle groups with minimum of 10 minutes such as walking, bicycling, jogging, continuous swimming, water aerobics, and many more with the aim of improving cardiorespiratory fitness which can be achieved if the exercise is being performed regularly at adequate intensity and frequency (Sigal, Kenny, Wasserman, Casteneda-Sceppa, 2010). When performing this exercise, the body will undergoes some physiological changes which can benefits everyone and in this case, diabetic patients.
The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is described as a dynamic interface between the peripheral circulation and the central nervous system. It functions as a physical and metabolical barrier between the nervous system and the circulating blood and is important for neuronal microenvironment, protection against in the peripheral blood circulating toxic molecules and to prevent neurotransmitters to escape into the general circulation. The barrier function was first discovered in 1913 by Goldman and colleagues. They injected colored dye into the blood stream of dogs and observed an absence of dye specifically in the central nervous system (Goncalves et al., 2013; Liddelow, 2011). It is comprised out of the neurovascular unit, which
α-Cobratoxin is potent postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist extracted from the venom of Thailand cobra species, naja nana siamensis (Eaker, Harris and Thesleff, 1971). Hence, it acts as a neuromuscular blocking agent by disrupting neurotransmission in the skeletal muscles by inhibiting the binding of acetylcholine. Binding take place in the ligand binding compartment found in-between the α/γ or α/δ of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits. The secondary structure of cobra toxin comprises of β strands, with the essential residues for nAChR binding sites present in loop I and in the tip of loop II. Toxin residues namely R33 and F29 were mainly associated with interactions with acetylcholine receptors C187, Y185,