As a result, the government should build more affordable housing for poor people. Investing in affordable-housing can bring profit and it is a safe investment for every company. The demand for affordable housing is large and stable, so compared to the commercial housing projects, the investment in social housing projects seems still less risky investment for owners’ investment (Stock investment, 2015). In the same way, supporting low and middle income households to find and live in affordable housing is essential to the competitiveness of the nation’s economy. To illustrate this, a study by Ryder (2015) found that, for every £1comapny invests, housing associations invest up to £6 of their own money.
Urban sprawl is defined as the expansion of metropolitan areas into urban surrounding areas, often due to the rapid population growth within a city. As a result of urban sprawl there has been an increase in traffic, health issues, environmental issues and public expenditure, due to migration away from the city centre and this affects its functionality as a human community. Since 1930 literature has discussed the concept of compact cities as the ideal city. The term Compact City originated in the 1930’s and Oxford Dictionary defines the Compact City as “an urban area with clearly defined boundaries, in which the residential and commercial districts are relatively close together, forestalling the development of rural land and reducing the need
(Loyalka) A second economic theory that contributes to the large number people who lived in rural areas migrating to the cities is the idea of Urban Bias. Economic Development by Michael Todaro and Stephen Smith defines Urban Bias as “The notion that most governments in developing countries favor the urban sector in their development policies, thereby creating a widening gap between the urban and rural economies”(336). In other words, governments show a bias to the urban sectors and will often put more time and effort into increasing the quality of living in these areas. As a result,
Recognizing that these routes (and later metropolitan expressways and interstate highways) represented lines of greater access, Hoyt theorized that cities would tend to grow in wedge-shaped patterns, or sectors, emanating from the CBD and centered on major transportation routes. Higher levels of access translate to higher land values. Thus, many commercial functions would remain in the CBD, but manufacturing activity would develop in a wedge surrounding transport routes. Residential land use patterns also would grow in wedge-shaped patterns with a sector of lower-income households bordering the manufacturing/ warehousing sector (traffic, noise and pollution making these less desirable locations to live) and sectors of middle- and higher-income households located away
If people were able to travel easily to areas somewhat out of urban areas, then businesses could take advantage of cheaper ground rents out of the city and easy access to employees. With more businesses able to start up, the government would be able to take advantage of more tax. This would mean fewer benefits paid for unemployment benefit as jobs are created out of the city, and more tax via income tax, and then more tax revenue via corporation tax on the businesses. This additional revenue would counterpoise the loss of income from public
Urbanization can be defined as “an increase in the proportion of a country’s population living in urban centers.” (Badcock, 2002). The formation of the concentric zone model can be attributed to one of two things namely; migration and urbanization. Migrants moving from one country to another forces the recipient country to make plans for appropriate housing and most migrants flock towards the city centers as they are the hub for job opportunities. In terms of urbanization when people from rural or countryside areas move to the cities, again a major driving force is job opportunities; the question of housing becomes an issue. Rapid building of housing begins and in the case of New Zealand house sizes became smaller to accommodate the need for more houses in one area.
urban Renewal is the urban planning of F. Stuart Chapin in his classic text definition, Urban Land Use Planning, as a "therapeutic change in the body of obsolete or outdated urban structures and facilities throughout the region, change or replace the response to stress Social and economic changes. "He pointed out that this process has taken place because of the birth of civilization. With the modernization of society and the influx of southern immigrants and European immigrants into American cities in the first half of the twentieth century, the process was accelerated and the response of the federal government was thus given ample housing and the urgent need for urban renewal. In the following cases, narrative, urban renewal in the United
Such changes have affected mainly on the individual and society but in different ways  and the phenomenon of cities growth is steadily increase, so the urban population growth rate exceeds the population growth rate . Herper and Gottman defined the urban sprawl process by spread and extension out the border of the city, e.g. the urban sprawl without adhering to the limits of the areas where this process has occurred . The urban sprawl is known as continuing increase in the numbers of the population, whether in regular or irregular housing, which increases the demand on agricultural land, then creates defect in the ecological balance . Several studies indicate that urbanization in cities of developing countries is happening in a quantitative manner rather than quality; e.g.
In short, global urbanization causes a rise in the number of population in developed countries from 63% to 85% (GHEC, 2007). Available statistics show that current world’s population has reached 7 billion and will keep increasing, where more than 50% of global population reside in urban areas (Wu, 2014). Etiology (5m) As a matter of fact, urbanization occurs mainly because of the expansion of city boundary which engulfs the rural area. This will result in the increment of interaction of residents including smallholder farmers ' access to the city economy, job opportunities, education and technology exchange (Magigi, 2013). When the rural area has been developed, the number of migration will increase, hence influencing a higher rate of urbanization in that particular area.
The contemporary world is an urban world. This is apparent in the expansion of urban areas and the extension of urban influences across much of the habitable surface of the planet. Today, for the first time in the history of humankind, urban dwellers outnumber rural residents. Urban places – towns and cities – are of fundamental importance: for the distribution of population within countries; in the organization of economic production, distribution and exchange; in the structuring of social reproduction and cultural life; and in the allocation and exercise of power. Furthermore, in the course of the present century the number of urban dwellers and level of global urbanization are likely to increase.