In the World History textbook, “The Human Experience”, a Confucian essay by Jia Yi, and a newspaper article by T’an Hsiao-Wen, it tells us how the Qin Dynasty came to an end. The most reliable source for the end of the dynasty was the Confucian essay by Jia Yi.
Qin Shi Huang made many changes to how he wanted to rule China, however, some of the most important and famed revisions were his different methods of managing his land. Distribution of lands during previous dynasties, like the Zhou dynasty(1046 BCE-256 BCE) (Britannica, Zhou dynasty, 2016, 2018), was too lax compared to the Qin; because they allowed pre-existing rulers to maintain their land. “Zhou kings sent members of their family to set up fortresses and rule new territories in the conquered lands. They also made local rulers into feudal lords who ruled for them. By the 700’s B.C., there were about 200 Zhou lords. The Zhou kings, however, always retained their power. The Zhou central government had a royal army, which fought with the lords’
This had a unifying effect on the Chinese culture for thousands of years and is considered an important achievement under the Qin dynasty. Also a style of calligraphy was created which is still used in cards, posters and advertising. Other reforms during Qin rule include standardization of currency, weights and measures.”
After imperial structure was restored, the Chinese began to disapprove of Buddhism (docs 4, 6). Chinese government authorities increasingly saw Buddhism as a threat to their political power and moved to discredit it. Imperial Tang advisor Han Yu saw Buddhism as evil, anti-Confucian, and illegal (doc 4). Han Yu’s position and livelihood greatly depends on Confucianism remaining dominant, especially due to the civil service system, which provided him with his government job. Due to this, he is not a very reliable source on how the average citizen and even the Chinese emperor felt about Confucianism remaining dominate (doc 4, POV).
One of the difference between the Qin and the Han dynasty is that Qin dynasty practiced Legalism and the Han dynasty practiced Confucianism. For the Han dynasty, in Document 3, states that they had a exam system of giving opportunities for everyone across the dynasty who has outstanding moral and learning to have a chance to have a role in the government, which shows that the Han dynasty emperor gave more opportunities to the commoners. For the Qin in Document 2, says that the people follow the rules, and there are no trouble because the people understand what happens when they do not follow the rules, which leads to punishments. Which shows that the Qin dynasty had strict rules for people to just obey for the government and have no say. Taking
In ancient china there were two widely different philosophes being so excepted within the same culture. The two philosophes were Confucianism and Legalism. Confucianism was during 55 B, in China. Legalism was during 475-221 BC, also in China. Confucianism is a belief or an idea. The purpose of this was to show people how to be in harmony with their place in life. Legalism is a ruling made by Shi Huangdi, who was a strict ruler in china. The purpose of this ruling was to get the people of china to follow the rule, and if they didn’t there was a very harsh punishment. Although confucianism and legalism have some similarities, but the differences between the two are amazingly clear.
This kept the people of China from ever considering to standing up to their ruler. Whereas the people of India were able to live more lenient lives. Until the death of the ruler Qin it remained this way. The next dynasty was The Glorious Han Dynasty. The ruler of this dynasty was of peasant origin and was not as harsh as his predecessor. The ruler Han Gaozu changed many laws and polices and “promoted the welfare of its subjects”(p.81) unlike the ruler Qin. After the Han Dynasty there was not another great dynasty four hundred years later after the fall of the Han
“The reason why China suffers bitterly from endless wars is because of the existence of feudal lords and kings.” -Qin Shi Huang.
Although Qin Shi Huang-Di is sometimes seen as a fantastic leader and unifier, he was also paranoid, oppressive, and tyrannical. For example, he was constantly worried about people who opposed him and about keeping control of his country. When Confucian scholars talked behind his back or criticized him because his administration was built on Legalism, he decided to get rid of them and ordered the arrest and execution of over 400 scholars (Gracie). This dislike of opposition and debate has carried over to the communist party of China today, showing just how much of Qin’s legacy has lasted. Along with the arrest of the scholars, he also used other means to end intellectual opposition. In 213 BCE, he ordered that all books be burned, except for
The government became a bureaucracy he strengthen the military, and made giant technological advances. Qin developed legalism forcing his power of the government on people, only forcing his power that enabled him to build his tomb. If his people did not follow these rules they would have been severely punished. Like other second wave civilizations China absorbed the religion of
Government officials in China rebuked Buddhism as corrupting the Confucian belief system that was in place, after the imperial structure was restored in 570 C.E. These Chinese officials responded hostilely to Buddhism’s spread throughout China as Han Yu, a leading Confucian scholar ridiculed Buddhism as “no more than a cult of barbarian peoples spread to China.” (Doc 4) Due to Han Yu’s position as an official in the Tang imperial court, his belief of Buddhism being a barbarian religion suggests that this idea was an
The fatal weakness of the Legalists lay in their blind worship of severe punishments and strict laws and disregard of the benefits of moral education and benevolence government. Qin Shi Huang was known to be a paranoid ruler such that he got rid of anybody who showed opposition or didn’t agree with him. Once, scholars were talking behind his back and being a paranoid person, he didn’t like that and arrested over 400 scholars and buried them. His ruthless act did not gain him much support from the people and soon he lost the Mandate of Heaven when Qin dynasty collapsed in
Unit 7 is a rather long section covering both Rome and China 's powerful and expansive empires during the time period 300 BCE - 300 CE. The Han Dynasty and Imperial Rome were very similar in their unprecedented scale and duration. Although they did operate in differing ways, for example, Rome relied on slaves to expand its workforce, while the Chinese 's economy lived off of free peasant farmers. The Chinese benefited from having an overwhelming population that would benefit the bureaucracy and supply political stability for the Hans. When it came to the Roman Empire, religion did not have the same impact that Confucianism had on the dynasties in China. The first couple of primary sources of Unit 7 detail the success and downfall of the Qin dynasty as well as the Han dynasty which followed. The later
Since the start of the Chin dynasty, countless philosophies were developed and preserved throughout time. Legalism, which was created by Han Fei, is an example of change through time as many punishments got weaker and strict laws were declined. On the other hand, one of the main philosophies that show continuity is Confucianism and the ideas of respecting the superior people were developed throughout time. In fact, Mandate of Heaven, a belief of rulers receiving blessings of the gods, is also an example of continuity in philosophies. In summary, during the time period between 221 B.C to 618 A.D in China, Legalism went through many significant changes, while Confucianism and Mandate of Heaven stayed constant.
China’s Last Empire. The Great Qing. William T. Rowe. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009. 360 pages including Emperors and Dynasties, Pronunciation Guide, Notes, Bibliography, Acknowledgements, Index, Maps and Figures.