Chronic Pain Case Study

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Psychological Assessment and Management of Chronic pain Evaluating a chronic pain condition from a biological perspective is limiting, and often fails to fully explain the patient’s symptoms. In contrast to the biomedical model, which explains pain purely in terms of pathophysiology, the biopsychosocial model views pain, suffering and disability, as the result of dynamic interactions among biological, psychological, behavioral, social, cultural and environmental factors. Consequently, assessment requires not only the examination of the biological dimension, but of the psychological and social dimensions as well. A patient’s experience of pain and response to any treatment for pain are affected not only by biologically determined nociceptive…show more content…
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), 2. Relaxation Training, and 3. Biofeedback. These approaches are often used together to provide simultaneous interventions at cognitive and physical levels. Research on cognitive behavioral interventions in chronic pain involves CBT, relaxation therapy, biofeedback, or some combination of the three. Generally, some form of CBT is combined with either relaxation training or biofeedback. Assessment Patients with chronic pain need to feel understood by those who are providing care to them. On the other hand, a therapist requires relevant and adequate information about the patient from a bio-psychosocial perspective to establish therapeutic goals. Therefore, a comprehensive psychological assessment is a prerequisite for CBT and other interventions (Please refer to chapter “Psychological Assessment of Patients with Chronic Pain”). Before starting the therapy clinician should have understanding of the…show more content…
This is achieved by detecting, amplifying, and displaying specific physiological process in such a way that the patient can be trained to voluntarily modify these processes. The name biofeedback refers to the biological signals that are fed back, or returned, to the patient in order for the patient to develop techniques of controlling them. During biofeedback, one or more special sensors are placed on the body. These sensors measure muscle tension, brain waves, heart rate, body temperature, and translate the information into a visual and/or audible readout, such as a paper tracing, a light display, or a series of beeps. While the patient views the instantaneous feedback from the biofeedback monitors, he begins to recognize what thoughts, fears, and mental images influence his physical reactions. By monitoring this relationship between mind and body, he can then use thoughts and mental images deliberately to manipulate heartbeat, brain wave patterns, body temperature, and other bodily functions, and to reduce feelings of stress. This is achieved through relaxation exercises, mental imagery, and other cognitive therapy techniques. The patient is able to recognize the state of relaxation or visualization necessary to alleviate symptoms; the biofeedback equipment itself is no longer needed. Biofeedback is commonly used to help in the

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