Piaget developed the theory of cognitive development to examine how children develop their thinking and reasoning when facing problems with the world around them at different ages. This essay critically analyses Piaget’s cognitive development theory. The aim of discussion is to investigate how Piaget’s theory is applied to young children in primary school learning areas and to discuss the strengths and implications of the theory that have an effect on developing an educational pedagogy. Firstly, the key processes of Piaget’s theory are explained and the connections it has with the development and learning of children. The discussion continues with how the concepts advise your developing educational pedagogy.
One study in particular is where he would observe children of different ages participating in game play, and would periodically stop them to ask the children to explain the rules of the game; this is how Piaget discovered children’s understanding of rules. After completing this study, he had discovered that children go through four different stages in their development of moral understanding and reasoning as they age. These stages are as follows; motor rules, egocentric, incipient cooperation, and genuine cooperation; they go hand-in-hand with his stages of cognitive development as
Vygotsky suggested that the child learns language in social interaction and then thinks in terms of that language. However, Vygotsky emphasized the importance of both history and context in the meaning each unit (word) of that language has in the thinking of the individual. Language plays an important role in a child’s development (Gredler, 2009). According to Vygotsky, children use speech not only for social communication, but also to help them solve tasks. Vygotsky (1962) further argued that young children use language to plan, guide, and monitor their behavior.
According to Piaget, “learning is a process of schematic change, or schema building” (p. 42). Schema building occurs through different processes: assimilation and accommodation, equilibrium (or adaptation) through action and exploration through using objects as tools for discovery, and using language as an object of knowledge, which children act upon. Piaget also said that children learn through peer collaboration, they overcome their initial egocentrism through interaction with other children. Both Piaget and Vygotsky theorized that children “construct knowledge through active and thoughtful engagement with their worlds” (p. 48) and then internalize their social experiences. Vygotsky developed the concept of “zone of proximal development” which is “an area in which children experience a challenge as they pursue a task, but do not become frustrated, and is activated through social collaboration or children’s play” (p. 49).
During this age children also develop memory and imagination and an ability to understand the difference between past and future and participate in make-believe. However children’s thinking is still developing and still not completely logical and they find it difficult to understand more complex concepts such as cause and effect, time, and comparison. (https://www.webmd.com/children/piaget-stages-of-development#1) Concrete operational (ages 7 to
It is evident that both Piaget and Vygotsky acknowledge cognitive development in children as a process and view the child as an active learner. However, it is important that a distinguish is made between their different stages of development. Although Piaget seems to have adequately described general sequences of intellectual development, his tendency to infer underlying competencies from intellectual performances often led him to underestimate children’s cognitive capabilities. Some investigators have challenged Piaget’s assumption that development occurs in stages, whereas others have criticized his theory for failing to specify how children progress from one “stage” of intellect to the next, and for underestimating social and cultural influences on intellectual development. Vygotsky provided a valuable service by reminding us that cognitive growth is best understood when studied in the social and cultural contexts in which it occurs.
His ideas explain how children develop knowledge of societal roles. Another of his contributions is that the self is not based on one variable. There is a distinction between the “I” and the “me” self. “I” is the unadulterated self, while “me” is the filter based on social norms (Coser, 2003). This is an important idea when considering different theories of the self and understanding human behavior.
Similarities and differences between Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories The similarities between the theories of Piaget and Vygotskyare that: • Cognitive development requires both physical and social stimulation. • Children need to be achieve and experiment in order to develop thinking. • Challenge with support will keep students engaged but not fearful. The differences of Piaget’ theory and Vygotsky are as follows: Table 2: Table showing the differences of Piaget 's and Vygotsky 's theory Piaget’s theory v.s Vygotsky’s theory: • Solitary • There are strict stages and are aged based. • Children acquired knowledge through their own explorations.
It focuses on children ages 0-6 years of age, and describes what types of learning children of this age should be engaged in. Aistear focuses on early childhood development focusing on the child being a child. It was developed after research
The influences of responsive and reciprocal relationships have on children’s learning 3. Children’s learning experiences can be relating to the learning theories. 3.1. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory, 3.2. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory, 3.3.