Student Name: Yan Wang Theory Critique between Cognitive Theory and Socio-cultural Theory For this assignment, I have selected two theories, cognitive theory and socio-cultural theory, to compare and contrast for further understanding children development and both theories’ implication in current education. Cognitive theory studies how people think, what’s going on within people’s mind. Social-cultural theory studies how the society, the culture, other people or external environment impact individual development. This paper would firstly respectively demonstrate both theories’ basic philosophy, representative persons and their claims. In the part …show more content…
It stresses on learning through thinking. It studies how people treat, organize, and transform information to affect their behavior. The most representative theorist of cognitive theory is Jean Piaget (1896-1980). He was born in Switzerland, and he has three children. It is impressive that most of his research is based on observation and studying of his own children. Cognitive development stages are the central part of Piaget’s theory, which demonstrate the development stages of children’s ability to think from infancy to adolescence, how to gain knowledge, self-awareness, awareness of the others and the environment. These stages are respectively relative to 4 ranges of age. It consists of characteristics of each stage and phenomena of each. The first stage between birth to 2 years old, children learn the external through senses and action, instinctively. They sense object permanently and they usually show anxiety to strangers. The second stage is between age of 2 to 6 years old, children form ideas with words and images, which is tend to be over generalizing. Developmental phenomena of this stage include pretending play, egocentrism and language development. And then the third stage from 7 to 11 years old, children think logically about concrete events and understand similar events. In this period, abilities of conversation and mathematical transformation get to be developed. Last stage, 12 …show more content…
Most of this theory is started by Lev Vygotsky, who was born in Russia in 1896, but unfortunately he died at early age of only thirty-eight. He graduated from University of Moscow, after graduation, he taught literature in secondary school, which experience intensified his interest in how children learn. Most of important parts of Vygotsky theory consist of Scaffolding, MKO (more knowledgeable others), ZPD (zone of proximal development) and Role of Language. Scaffolding means to learn with help and support of others, like parents, tutors, or even peers who know more. These helpful people are called MKO, more knowledgeable others. ZPD is zone of the proximal development. Vygotsky divided children’s knowledge into three sections, respectively are what they can do, what they cannot do and ZPD. Here ZPD is the linking between “can do” and “cannot do”. I t means the potential learning area where children and reach with scaffolding of MKO. The significant part of Vygotsky theory is that he consider not only about children’s mental development, but also the external affection on mental function, which Piaget had missed out. Besides the above concepts, Vygotsky points out that language plays a key role in children’s thought forming. He believes thought is result of language
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According to Piaget there are four stages of intelligence. They are as follows: the Sensorimotor stage from birth to 2 years of age. In this stage Piaget states that the child is able to objects and stimuli but lack an internal representation of the outside world. The Preoperational stage from ages two to seven in which the child is able to use language to communicate, they also have the ability to think in images and draw those images. The Concrete Operational stage from ages seven - eleven is where the child should be using logical reasoning and is able to think in multiple dimensions.
Nonetheless, Vygotsky remains the one who developed this simple reflection into a theoretical statement known as the ZPD. It is believed that this decision of elaborating the ZPD lies in his disapproval in how the child’s intellectual capabilities were assessed and how achievement was evaluated (Wertsch, 1985). Vygotsky argued that the existing method of testing at the time, only established the actual level of development, but disregarded the potential learning ability of the child. The ZPD represents the learner’s higher mental functions “that are in the process of maturation, functions that will mature tomorrow but are currently in an embryonic state” (Dolya, 2010, p9). Further, Vygotsky (1978) defined the ZPD as a gap between the current level of development, which is characterized by the ability to carry out a task independently and the potential ability level, characterized by the capacity to carry out a task but only with guidance from others.
One of the most well known theories in cognitive development is Piaget 's theory. The psychologist Jean Piaget theorized that as children 's minds development, they pass through distinct stages marked by transitions in understanding followed by stability. Piaget describes four different stages of development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operation, and formal operations. Each stage describes the thinking patterns of a child depending on his or her age. In order to compare the thinking processes of a three-year old and a nine-year old using Piaget 's theory, you must compare two sequential stages of cognitive development: preoperational and concrete operations.
Theories of these two cognitive psychologists have been compared and contrasted on different levels. This essay will look into the differences and similarities between their theories. These two psychologist 's theories differ from each other in numerous ways. To begin with, Jean Piaget 's cognitive development theory proposes that children adapt to their environment by actively constructing knowledge as they perceive and explore their surroundings. His theory comprised of four stages of development.
Brief History Jean Piaget was a Twentieth century Swiss psychologist and was the first psychologist to systematically study the cognitive development of children. Thomas (2005) wrote that early in Piaget’s career he worked with children and his observations and interactions with the students led him to the theory that a young person's cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults (pp. 188-9). According to Ahmad, et al. (2005) , Piaget showed that when compared to adults, young children think in differently and he then came to the conclusion that cognitive development was an ongoing process which occurred due to maturation and interaction with the environment (p. 72).
The first stage is the sensory motor stage ( birth-2 yrs.) , in this stage child does not know the physical object in existence when out of stage. Second stage is called the preoperational stage (age2-7), no abstract conceptualisation is possible where it needs concrete physical situation. In the stage is concrete operational stage (age7-11), starts to conceptualize with experience that accumulates. The fourth stage is formal operation (11-15), cognitive structures resembles like adults and includes conceptual reasoning.
According to Vygotsky, the basis for learning lies within social interaction and communication. It is when a child is able to communicate, either verbally or non-verbally, that they understand the world around them through copying and internalizing new concepts. An example of this is what Vygotsky called cooperative or collaborative dialogue, when a “more knowledgeable other” assists the learner with a task. Although it sounds like a relatively basic idea, other psychologists at the time, notably Piaget, placed the source of learning within the person and not related to the people around them. As Orlando Lourenco illustrated in the article “Piaget and Vygotsky: Many resemblances, and a crucial difference,” the key difference between the two leading psychologists of the early twentieth century was the importance of the surroundings of the child.
Also, they both had some interest in philosophy. Their views help enhance the similarities and differences providing in their theories. The first theorist introduced is Piaget and his theory was based on “the understanding of how children and adolescents think and learn” (198). The second theorist introduced is Vygotsky and his theory was influenced by Karl Marx’s proposal “that historical changes in society have significant impact on how people think and behave” (215).
and it begins with the sensorimotor stage, a child from birth to the age of 2 years old learns and thinks by doing and figuring out how something works. The second stage is the preoperational stage and in this stage children from ages 2 through 7 years are developing their language and they do pretend play (Berk, 2005, p.20). Concrete operational is the third stage and children ages 7 to 11 years old lack abstract but have more logic than they did when they were younger. The last stage is formal
Piaget developed a stage theory of intellectual development that included four distinct stages: the sensorimotor stage, from birth to age 2; the preoperational stage, from age 2 to about age 7; the concrete operational stage, from age 7 to 11; and the formal operational stage, which begins in adolescence and spans into adulthood. He believed that there were four necessary ingredients for cognitive development which included: “maturation of the nervous system, experiences gained through interaction with physical world, social environment, and child’s active participation in adapting to environment & constructing knowledge from experience.” (Sullivan, 2014, Slide 3) The sensorimotor stage occurs between birth and age 2. Infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and handling objects.
Theories that as future educator will need to be understood and explored. Some if not all these theory’s will be used in the classroom. Vygotsky, Piaget, Bruner, and Bloom all set out to establish a foundation for education, whether through building skills such as pre-reading, language, vocabulary, and numeracy. It becomes the educators job to implement theories into the classroom for children's cognitive development. The theorist discussed in this paper, have had made a profound effect on
This article aims to explore Piaget’s cognitive development theory and Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory. Piaget explicated people fundamentally improve their thinking in stage at distinct periods. In terms of Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory, it is inevitable to investigate the correlation between social interaction and individual cognitive development, the role of cultural tools in mental process, and the zone of proximal development(ZPD). In light of Piaget’s theory, there are four elements proposed to elaborate people gradually endeavor to interpret and interact with the world. To be precise, biological maturation, activity, social experience, and equilibration impinge on the development of thinking (Piaget,1970).
Vygotsky maintained that speech is a major psychological tool in the child's development of thinking. As children age and develop, their basic speech becomes increasingly complex. However, Jean Piaget holds somehow different ideas. His theory of cognitive development,which is guided by the hypothesis of how people interact with their surroundings and how they acquire new knowledge and intellectual into existing knowledge,described and explained the changes in the logical thinking of children and adolescents. Still, both of Piaget and Vygotsky assumed that the crucial role played by cognitive development in the psychological development of people can not be ignored.