One study in particular is where he would observe children of different ages participating in game play, and would periodically stop them to ask the children to explain the rules of the game; this is how Piaget discovered children’s understanding of rules. After completing this study, he had discovered that children go through four different stages in their development of moral understanding and reasoning as they age. These stages are as follows; motor rules, egocentric, incipient cooperation, and genuine cooperation; they go hand-in-hand with his stages of cognitive development as
Vygotsky suggested that the child learns language in social interaction and then thinks in terms of that language. However, Vygotsky emphasized the importance of both history and context in the meaning each unit (word) of that language has in the thinking of the individual. Language plays an important role in a child’s development (Gredler, 2009). According to Vygotsky, children use speech not only for social communication, but also to help them solve tasks. Vygotsky (1962) further argued that young children use language to plan, guide, and monitor their behavior.
Lev Vygotsky provided many contributions to development that impacted what we know about how children learn and the kinds of environment that should be provided for optimal development of language. Vygotsky believed that the environment provides children with information that supports language development. Similarly, he theorized that language begins with communication between children and individuals in their environment. He developed the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) which is the distance between what a child can do independently and what a child can do with support from an adult. Therefore, the main role of an adult is to help children bridge the distance between what they can do independently and what they can do with some support.
In “When Children Draw” by Sandra Crosser Ph. D she believes that the drawing or scribbling plays an important role in a child’s physical, emotional and cognitive development. It allows children to express their emotions, autonomy, and build confidence. Kellog (1970) described 20 basic scribbles tend to using during their first exploratory stage. Most children do not use all of these scribbles (Cox, 1992).
Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways as illustrated during the famous bobo doll experiment (Bandura, 1961 as cited by McLeod, 2011). When children learn, they have their own aim or motive such as solve a problem, finish their homework or complete some experiments. With these aim to accomplish, they observe, judge and react to their perceived progress. As what Schunk (2012) had cited Bandura (1986) and Kanfer & Gaelick (1986), an early social cognitive theory viewed self-regulation as compromising three processes which are self-observation, self-judgment, and self-reaction. The component processes underlying this observational learning are attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation.
In Piaget’s cognitive stage, children from birth to the age of two go through this stage. In this stage, infants are developing the ability to coordinate their sensory input with there motor skills. An example would be, when kids are playing with toys and put the toys in their month and feel with their mouth. Infants also develop object Permanence. The object Permanence is when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible.
The second aspect is the cognitive development which related to Piaget’s theory. Piaget’s theory is all about the cognitive development of childhood. Piaget was interested in how the child learns things and in the way the child think, so he studied the child from infancy to the adolescence. Also, Piaget believed that all the stages are universal, and every child in the world will go through these stages. The third aspect is the social development which can be explained by Erickson's theory.
Both Vygotsky and Piaget were particularly interested in Cognitive Development in children. Piaget’s theory of development consists of four phases. The sensorimotor, the pre-operational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage (Piaget, 1952). In the Sensorimotor stage which is the age of zero to two years, the infant’s knowledge of their environment developed through their senses, experiences and physical movements. Physical development increases the chances of the infant to develop new intellectual abilities.
Interactionists argue that language development is both biological and social. Interactionists argue that language learning is influenced by the desire of children to communicate with others. The Interactionists argue that "children are born with a powerful brain that matures slowly and predisposes them to acquire new understandings that they are motivated to share with others" ( Bates,1993;Tomasello,1995, as cited in shaffer,et al.,2002,p.362). The main theorist associated with interactionist theory is Lev Vygotsky.Interactionists focus on Vygotsky 's model of collaborative learning ( Shaffer,et al.,2002). Collaborative learning is the idea that conversations with older people can help children both cognitively and linguistically (
Children this age display logic skills, the ability to apply rules and categories, and are able to infer. This is also the stage where children are supposed to learn to take in multiple variables and develop the skill of conservation. 2. According to Erikson, development is brought about by interactions with others. These pivotal moments are called psychosocial stages.