Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child's cognitive development, because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought. This means the child can work things out internally in their head (rather than physically try things out in the real world).Children can conserve number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9). Conservation is the understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance
Piaget and Vygotsky, two of the major advocates for Constructvist theory, both explored factors that could help figure out how children understand learning at different stages in their lives. These theories give insight to the differences, yet also the links in learning, particularly in relation to how children gain their learning, and how their behavior may be affected. The learning theories presented; Behaviorism and Constructivism originated from two deep thinking schools of thought, which has lead to influence educators’ view in learning and teaching. Two of the major advocates of behaviorism were Skinner and Watson. They explored how children’s learning could be affected by changes in the environment that they learn in, and attempted to prove that children’s
Introduction Developmental psychology makes an attempt to comprehend the types and sources of advancement in children’s cognitive, social, and language acquisition skills. The child development theories put forward by both Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson have had substantial impacts on contemporary play therapy. In this essay, I aim to highlight the contribution of these two theorists in their study of various developmental stages, the differences and similarities in their theories, and their contributions to the theory and practice of play therapy. Jean Piaget Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland in 1896. His interest initially lay in natural sciences, which he studied before his interests moved to psychoanalysis.
In articulating this critical response, Gallacher and Kehily (2013: 227) refer to work by researchers Prout and James (1997) who outline certain characteristics of sociocultural approaches to the study of childhood which “value children’s contributions to society on their own terms” (Gallacher and Kehily 2013: 227). Such approaches see children as active in their own construction rather than mere subjects of a programmed developmental process. Nevertheless, Gallacher and Kehily (2013) also emphasize that Prout and James’ outlined characteristics do not “adequately summarise all of the diverse work in the sociocultural study of childhood, but it does provide a useful summary of some key ideas within the field” (227). Gallacher and Kehily (2013) further discuss this “binary opposition becoming/being” (240) by identifying the two historical approaches to understanding childhood: developmental and sociological. Both of these approaches seek to understand the process of becoming adult and the process of becoming social, respectively.
Introduction This assignment is in two parts. The first part of this assignment would attempt to use the theories of human development to explain the child behaviours observed during child observation at the preschool while the second part of this assignment would propose an intervention on a scenario at my practice placement. I would demonstrate my critical understanding of the theories and evaluate their relevance for evidence-informed and value-based practice. I would conclude by articulating my critical appreciation of the use of theory to inform professional social work practice based on my experience from the child observation and my placement experience. The notes taken from the child observations and a chosen case from my placement,
‘Constructivist’ theory of learning is considered to be the main developmental theories of learning currently working in the area of special educational needs. Constructivism is ‘child-centred development’. It is an active and building process, where learners use what they already know to learn new things, and infer new knowledge based on their interaction with new experiences outside themselves, using information and ideas from within themselves, or already obtained. In other words, knowledge is considered to be socially constructed because it is obtained in partnership between new experiences and knowledge already acquired. Constructivism is useful for understanding the way in which a child may progress educationally, which is important
Cognitive Development can be explained as the emergence of thought processes beginning from infancy to childhood to adolescence to adulthood. The aim of this essay is to focus on Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development. Jean Piaget is a Swiss developmental psychologist who is known for his epistemological studies. On the other hand, Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky, a Soviet psychologist best known for his theory known as the Cultural-Historical theory. Both Vygotsky and Piaget were particularly interested in Cognitive Development in children.
Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist best known for pioneering studies on cognitive development in children. Piaget is best known for his theory of cognitive development and for advancing the field of genetic epistemology, which he established. Piaget was born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland on August 9th, 1896 to Arthur Piaget, a university professor, and Rebecca Jackson. Since young childhood, Piaget showed an aptitude for biology, particularly with his studies concerning mollusks which garnered professional attention. Additionally, Piaget was introduced to epistemology at a young age by his godfather, who stressed the importance of studying philosophy and logic.
4. Moral Development theory of Lawrence Kohlberg Lawrence Kohlberg was a famous psychologist and developed an important theory of moral developments. In this theory, the child is responsive to cultural rules and labels of good and bad, right or wrong. By studying the answers from children of different ages Kohlberg hoped to discover the ways in which moral reasoning changed as people grew older. Kohlberg’s stages of moral development have three main levels and six stages.
In 1915, he received a medical doctorate from Yale University. A maturationist is defined as someone who believes that the role of education is to inactively support the growth of a child rather than actively fill the child with information. Arnold Gesell was considered to be a maturationist in developmental psychology. According to Gesell’s Maturational Theory, a child or teenager will progress only according to what they have programmed in his or her genetics. He came up with a series of stages in which