Back in the 18th century, the Enlightenment Period took place in Europe. The reason as to why the Enlightenment Period was established is because it helped the world better understand how scientific worked. The Enlightenment opened many doors for independent thoughts, but sometimes the new ideas and new freedoms lead to abuse. These ideas still now continue to affect Europe and the Western world in a negative and positive way and mostly all facts doing with science have a lot to do with the Enlightenment. Natural Rights influenced people of the time and led to revolution as evident in U.S Constitution, Declaration of the Rights of Men, and Haitian Constitution 1801.
His ideas contrasted with Locke’s though because he believed in a strong government and absolute monarchy. Hobbes opposed Locke and said his idea would create chaos, because people are naturally selfish and greedy. Thomas believed that a strong government was needed to enforce order in society. In Hobbes “social contract”, people sacrifice their freedom for the greater good to have a better society. Next, Baron de Montesquieu was a philosophe who studied the governments of Europe.
Louis XIV valued power more than anything, and he wanted to increase his control over his subjects. He knew it would be more difficult to control people with religious differences, and he hoped that revoking the Edict of Nantes would end these divisions. The Great Elector valued economic prosperity--he welcomed the refugees because he knew they were a skilled and highly-educated group who would help increase the overall wealth of Prussia. Both Louis XIV and Peter the Great viewed war as extremely important--Peter the Great even mentions Louis XIV in his letter, describing his love of war, “glorious exploits” and what he considered great success. Their goals for war, as indicated in their two documents, appear to be different.
He favored representative government and a rule of law. He denounced tyranny. He insisted that when government violates individual rights, people may legitimately rebel” (Powell 2). He believed that the government was created for the people and not just the monarchy and if the government fails it’s up to the people to ‘fix’ it. He influenced many people and philosophers, including Thomas Paine and Thomas
Denis Diderot, one of the philosophers of the Enlightenment era, made him become one of the most intellectual individuals during the Enlightenment movement. Through his works, especially the Encyclopédie, Diderot found key information and recent scientific discoveries like the size of the universe. During this time, he ended up helping transform society’s view of the human being. In Diderot’s own beliefs, he was strongly against slavery. By expressing his concern, Diderot urged people to think and join him in the struggle for social and political change.
If Burke mainly aimed to relieve oppression of the government on people, Condorcet mainly aimed to seek individual freedom. Due to the social atmosphere of their era when people rose against dictatorship and tyrannies, their basic aim was to set up a democratic government which granted people of basic human rights and freedom. In order to achieve this, Burke, as a member of British Parliament, constantly urged the Parliament to limit their powers. For instance, he would propose to abandon the tax on tea. Condorcet had an intention of applying universal suffrage which led to his drafting of a plan to establish a new constitution, which was clearly a more aggressive action comparing with Burke?s.
By forming associations with others, citizens are able to gain power to combat big government. They also stimulate new thoughts, new ideas, and political involvement. Other options that he believes would create a better functioning democracy are strong local governments, freedom of association, and an independent judiciary system. One aspect of the United States’ democracy that Tocqueville found beneficial were the courts. Because judges were appointed and served a life term, they would be unconcerned with maintaining a positive public image and make just decisions.
How he was raised and what was going on is a huge determinant of what he believed in and what he wanted to see change within the world. This is both a positive and negative trait in regards to how someone conducts their research and in what they publish. Within this paper I will be showing that Ashley Montagu was a forward-thinking individual and helped bring positive change within the thought process of certain societies during a very pivotal time in history and that even though his works didn’t completely change everyone’s mentality on race, he certainly helped effect
Many people would disagree with King’s stand on individualism. Those who support capitalism would argue that individualism brings out the best in people. It improves lifestyle through innovation and economic freedom. Competition motivates people to strive for more, creating an overall more prosperous society. Individual rights and freedoms allow people to voice and discuss their opinions, and participate in government decisions.
The Enlightenment was a period of time that stressed the importance of reason and individual ideas. Many philosophers published works criticizing a country’s monarch or divulging the flaws they saw in a system within the government, such as the justice system. The Enlightenment also stressed the importance of education, and as a result of this, literacy rates experienced a major upward trend. Now able to read the philosopher’s works, a larger sum of people now were educated on the corruptions within their government. This caused a questioning of traditional practices, and people began to believe they could revise their government.