Aristotle also discusses the correlation between the nature of happiness and education. He suggests that education allows us to be good judges. Thus, education provides humans with the opportunity to be if not happy at least content in their decisions. Also, Aristotle argues that it is the nature of man to have different perspectives on the nature of happiness. Aristotle states some of the elements that are mistaken for happiness but are not attributable to the nature of happiness such as wealth.
In a way, it might even be seen as a sort of relativist perspective because the gods could develop their own beliefs and commands and change them accordingly and they must always be right. This is what makes Socrates’ claim so essential, it calls into question the Divine Command Theory and questions the real origin of morality. Human civilizations have been going to the gods for their guidance since the beginning of time, but Socrates’ brings insight that stumps the “smart” Euthyphro. In a certain way, this one question can poke a hole in an individual’s view and traditions of religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It is the spring board for disciplines and studies into religious apologetics, because this question that might seem innocuous at first proves to be incredibly powerful.
Within the second book of Aristotle’s “Nicomachean Ethics”, he expands upon the ultimate human good of happiness, and interprets virtues of character in order to clarify his connection between the two. Although virtuous activity is differentiated into irrational and rational desires, a combination of both is important for one’s soul (Aristotle). Furthermore, an excessive or deficient amount of any activity is capable of corrupting one’s virtue of character, but can be counteracted by properly habituating these extremities to intermediary levels (Aristotle). However, distinguishing between too much and too little effort can be complicated and that is why humans rely on feelings in order to interpret their progress in life. Aristotle interprets
In the reading, "Utilitarianism," the author argues that happiness is the main criteria for morality since people base their actions off of the overall happiness it could promote (pp. 195 and 198) and that while actions differ in the quantity and quality of pleasure, pleasurable actions that require intellect are of the higher pleasures (pp. 196-197). One of the author’s main reasons to support his view is that morality is determined by what increases or decreases the overall amount of utility (pp. 197).
From Valjean’s shift from Hedonism to a selfless Utilitarian lifestyle, to Javert’s strict Kant’s Categorical moral code and Thenardier’s despicable Hedonistic life, each had a very real impact in the people they met and the course that the story took. It shows that based on one’s experiences, their lives could be greatly improved, or worsened. Hugo advocates to the reader to lead a Utilitarian lifestyle, but also urges the real impact that Hedonism and Kant’s Categorical has on society. One must always strive for good, but also accept the fact that sometimes evil and ignorance
Epicurus’ ethics is one of egoistic hedonism, i.e. “the theory that one ought to only pursue one’s pleasure as an ultimate end” (Larveson, L7). He proposes that since sensations are what define us, which include pleasure and pain, learning how to maximize pleasure and minimize pain is how to live a virtuous life or the good life (Epicurus, pg. 59). Thus, our actions that we do lies in that it maximizes pleasure and minimizes pain for us.
Philosophers before them were preoccupied with the natural world, its workings, its essence etc. The Sophists turned attention from external nature to man himself and with their skepticism and nihilism have exposed some longstanding conventions and beliefs about the possibility of objective universal knowledge. With this focus on man and their constant questioning of the existent assumptions about knowledge they have prompted philosophers to take questions about knowledge—theory of
And if an individual performs noble actions towards others then they can reach happiness, but only if those actions are performed with the “help of instruments, as it were: friends, wealth, and political power” (p.54). Aristotle explains that happiness consists in living in accordance with reason. Aristotle, “first starts by explaining that the “soul consists of two elements, one irrational and one rational” (p.58). Then on page 59 he states that “in morally strong and morally weak men we
Equality is not wrong to want something for himself, especially after servicing others his whole life. But while Equality's outlooks aren't necessarily bad, there still needs to be balance. If everyone thought only about themselves, society would crumble. People have to rely on each other to an extent, and total selfishness would prevent this. That being said, someone can have selfish moments while still being a good person and caring for others.
The virtue of good engineer includes creativity, good understanding of culture, morality, and capability of communication. In utilitarian and Kantian view of ethics, such virtuous values are not taken into consideration. This short paper suggests how future engineers should apply the virtues and excellences in their fields and why virtuous engineers are more likely to contribute to society and make it better. In Aristotle’s view, virtue(arête) is defined as an essential factor to achieve happiness of an individual, while happiness(eudaimonia) is defined as an ultimate objective of human-being. Aristotle insisted that the order of priority may decide whether one’s goal should be considered as a means or the goal itself.