Each stage in this theory contains what Erikson terms a “crisis”, this crisis consists of interactions with others and through that interaction certain attributes and virtues are developed. Erikson was interested in Freud’s concept of fixation, but he used different concepts and principles in introducing the stages of identity development. In contrast with Freud, Erikson emphasizes that the development of personality is not limited. Instead, it is continuous throughout the whole individual’s life (Ewan, 2003). As Fleming (2004)
Introduction Psychoanalyst and personality theorist, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), described anxiety as a feeling of danger and threat to which the ego must respond. Even though the original threat, emanates from the psychic energy of other parts of the personality, id and superego, nonetheless, a protection or defense must be launched. “The ego must reduce the conflict between the demands of the id and the strictures of society or the superego” (Schultz & Schultz, 2013). It is the ego that decides the best way to satisfy the impulses of the id and superego, choosing one or two defense mechanisms to deploy within its’ behavior. Authors, Schultz and Schultz (2013) describe two such defense mechanisms as: • Rationalization A defense mechanism
Psychobiography: Final Reflection on Theories of Personality It is documented that personality is what all about psychosomatic system’s approach of any person that take a broad view of his/her behavior and outlook (Feist & Gregory, 2009). But, for this paper, when I go into the detail study, which aimed at analyzing assorted personality theories with human behavior, I have found leading categories regarding theories of personality, explaining unlike human behaviors and outlooks. However, the given study does not meet its expected goal of finding personality theories to understand human behavior absolutely, but then again, it has accumulated critical information regarding different factors and dynamics’ role in getting useful data about human behavior through studied personality’s theories. In truth, I have garnered worthwhile materials about the personality theories along with human behavior. The thesis of the paper- Focus upon my exploration on the different types of personality theories, I learn that different personality theories have a big part in understanding the human behavior and it also serves me well; still, it is also true that I am unable to comprehend human behavior and crux of the considered personality theories.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) believed in a psychodynamic approach to psychology and focused on how the unconscious mind motivates the actions of a person. He believed that the psyche was divided into three parts (tripartite), the id, the ego and the superego, and all three develop at different stages in our lives. Whether we acknowledge the presence of this subconscious or not, it influences greatly the actions we engage in. The id (it), according to Freud, is the part of the brain that seeks pleasure, and is the most primitive part that makes up the personality. It holds all of our primal instincts and seeks immediate gratification.
Recognizing the division of personality in the,”ID”Ego”, and Super ego and that the unconscious is an important part of who we are and noting that anxiety plays a big function in how one reacts to the world at large and highlighting Freud’s theory on defense mechanism to help one cope with such anxieties. Core Philosophy of the Therapeutic Approach The most important underlying ideas relating to the psychoanalytic theory was mainly influenced by Sigmund Freud, one of the most famous names in Psychology, his Psychoanalytic Theory formed the bases of many current psychoanalytic theories. He was the first to discuss the unconscious mind and its role in human behaviour. Freud believed that there were three levels consciousness the first he labeled s the unconscious mind which exist outside of an individual’s awareness at all times. The
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory Erik Erikson (1950, 1963) proposed a psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial development comprising eight stages from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development. Erikson 's ideas were greatly influenced by Freud, going along with Freud’s (1923) theory regarding the structure and topography of personality. However, whereas Freud was an id psychologist, Erikson was an ego psychologist. He emphasized the role of culture and society and the conflicts that can take place within the ego itself, whereas Freud emphasized the conflict between the id and the superego.
Robert Louis Stevenson makes use of Freud’s theories. In “The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde”, the dualistic issue dominating the novel, coincide with the Freudian concepts of instincts and today is known as a strong example of Freudian personality theory in fiction. Freud believed that the psyche is built of three structures which battle for dominance; the id, the ego and the superego. By using his theory we are able to understand the psychological aspects of the characters that are hidden in the novella. The id is the illogical part of the personality structure that consists of instincts and functions according to the pleasure principal.
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY The word psychodynamic means to a large group of theories that affects the It is a way that tells that personality of the mind exists in the conscious, subconscious and unconscious states like the unconscious wishes, feelings and thoughts. This theory is presented by Sigmund Freud in which he mentions that personality contains three components which are the id, the ego and the superego. These all work collaboratively in order to make complex human behaviours. Id is associated with the way of thinking or the natural ability and the crave for pleasure. Ego is associated with the intervene in the agreement among them with the need of the reality.
All this to better understand why people behave the way they do and how big impact does the personality have on behaviour. For those who explored personality, it was also important to look for reasons why certain personality traits occur in some individuals and not in other individuals. For instance, what makes people differ. A range of approaches looks at this problem, for example, genetics or psychoanalysis.
Allport believed that the set of labels that describe a particular person reflects that person’s central traits (those that are usually obvious to others and that organize and control behavior in many different situations). He also believed that people possess secondary traits (those that are more specific to certain situations and control far less behavior). Allport’s research helped to lay the foundation for modern research on personality traits. His focus on the uniqueness of each personality made it difficult to draw conclusions about the structure of personality in general (Bernstein,