No exceptional fasteners are required, and fewer employees are required to entire the process. No cutting, retaining, and hammering simultaneously long, hefty and bulky planks. 6) Strength and Durability Structural steel components are lighter and stronger than weight-bearing wood or concrete products. A typical weight-bearing steel fabrication is 30% to 50% lighter than a wooden equivalent. This makes steel frame construction far stronger and more durable than traditional wood framed alternatives.
REVIEW PAPER ON BEHAVIOR OF FLAT SLAB UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING Sukanya Sawant1, Student M Tech (STR Engg), GHRCE Nagpur, and Prof. K. R. Dhabhekar2, Asst. Prof. Civil Engg Dept., GHRCE Nagpur. E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT Structures with a large degree of indeterminacy is more to one with less indeterminacy, if yielding takes place in any one of them and members are monolithically connected to each other, then a redistribution of forces takes place. So it is necessary to study analysis of seismic behavior of building. Flat slab building structures are significantly flexible than traditional concrete wall structures or frame structures (beam-column-slab), thus becoming more
Concrete materials are still a dominant material for construction due to its advantages suchas workability, low cost and fire resistance as well as its low maintenance cost. It is formed from a hardened mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and some admixture. Massive exploration of the natural resources for producing concrete affect to the environment condition and global warning. We have responsibility to reduce the effect of the application of concrete materials to environmental impact. The concrete should be used as efficient as possible.
The versatility of precast concrete makes it ideal for architectural applications. The exterior surface of a precast concrete piece can vary from a form face finish similar to cast-in-place to an exposed aggregate finish that is highly ornamental. Some precast panels act as column covers while others extend over several floors in height and incorporate window openings. In most cases, the architect selects the cladding material for appearance, provides details for weatherproofing and specifies performance criteria. The structural engineer designs the structure to hold the cladding, designates connection points and evaluates the effects of structural movement on the cladding.
Elasto-Plastic Seismic response of RC continuos bridge with foundation-pier dynamic interaction (Bo, Chen, Yu) 2015,18, 6, Advances In Structural Engineering Using materials with high quality can help the bridge strengthen its durability. In this article, the shallow foundation is often employed as the base for bridges. And due to some natural phenomenon, the shallow foundation experiences plastics deformation. No matter how durable the strength of matrials used in building up brides, if the very own foundation is not strong, the bridge itself is not strong enough to withstand some phenomenons. This article shows that the study of soil-structure interaction (SSI) will help to maintain a proper foundation for bridges.
Plastic shrinkage crack may not affect the strength of structure but will ruin the appearance of the structure and the crack to full depth may allow water to penetrate it. Figure 9. Plastic Shrinkage Crack Figure 9 is a representation of plastic shrinkage crack where crack propagation is highly evident. There are several ways to minimize this crack such as in hot weather, lower the temperature of the fresh concrete by using chilled mixing water or replacing some of this water with crushed ice. Covering the concreted area to avoid excess evaporation or proper curing can help reduce this crack formation.
CHAPTER-5 LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEMS 5.1 GENERAL Seismic loads are actually generated by the dead weight of the building construction. In visualizing the application of seismic forces, each part of the building has to be considered and its weight as a horizontal force. The major lateral loads on building structure are wind and earthquake loads. In buildings, lateral load is transferred to the foundation in 3 stages.. 1. Primary collection (load which transfers from wall to diaphragms) 2.
temperature, humidity and wind play a vital role in the quality and strength of hardened concrete. The following points must be ensured at site to produce the concrete of required strength: 1. In order to achieve full compaction and maximum density, it is necessary to use a mix with adequate workability. 2. To obtain maximum strength of the concrete a driest possible concrete should be produced and shall be compacted 100 %.
The construction of the reinforced concrete framed structures with brick masonry infill walls is widely adopted for commercial, industrial and residential buildings. For the functional needs and aesthetic reasons, the brick infill panels are widely used as internal and external partition walls in the reinforced concrete structures; but they are usually treated as non-structural elements. The self-weight of infill walls is considered to be acting on the beams but the contribution of the infill walls to provide resistance to the seismic loading is generally ignored in the structural analysis despite significant advances in computer technology and availability of modern computational resources. In buildings, the ordinarily occurring gravity dead and live loads do not create much of a problem, but the lateral loads like the earthquake forces need special attention and they are to be taken care of, mainly in the seismic prone areas. Seismic analysis is the structural analysis which involves the study of the response of a structure to the earthquake.
silica fume concreteis used to produce high strength concrete.The factors that have a beneficial effect onstrength( like dense concrete, strongaggregates) also have a beneficial effecton abrasion resistance. silica fumeconcrete caters to all this needs. Chemical resistance A major reason for the improvedresistance of concrete to acidic andsulphate waters is the reduction in theca(oh)2 content of the cement paste,which decreases linearly with the amountof silica fume added. with 20% silica fumeby weight of cement ,very little of ca(oh)2produced by the Portland cementhydration is left in well hydrated cementpaste. Alkali aggregate reaction The amount of pozzolona needed for reducing the alkali aggregate expansiondepends on the reactivity of pozzolona.studies have shown that less than 10% of silica fume is found adequate for thispurpose as compared to fly ash whichrequires 30%-40% replacement High Strength Concrete High Performance Concrete (HPC)enhanced with silica fume is so strong itbecomes an economical alternative tosteel.