Coral bleaching is when the animals that build the coral shed the algae that give them their color and is necessary for survival. Coral bleaching is suspected to happen by two different ways. The first is due to warmer water. The coral needs to be in certain temperature in order to maintain its life. The second way is due to pollution.
Professor Petersen-Mahrt Svend of SEMM The European School of Molecular Medicine states that E. gracilis has a high sensitivity to environmental changes such as the change in pH levels (Petersen-Mahrt 1997). The pH level [of the environment] can directly distress the absorption of nutrients in marine environments. E. gracilis has been found to endure an expansive range [compared to] other algae (Danilov and Ekelund 2001). Through studies done by William J. Robbins, a botanist from Columbia University, E. gracilis has been found to grow best at a pH level of 3.0
Introduction In order for a coral reef to be productive and healthy, the water quality in the ocean should be maintained. Water quality not only affects coral reefs, but the other organisms that live on it and are involved with the natural food chain. Some of the factors that can influence water quality are nutrients, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, light, and chlorophyll present. Water is essential to every living organism because it helps with respiration, maintaining body temperature, digestion and provides energy. This experiment involved taking water samples from Ferry Reach off the BIOS dock and analyzing different factors to determine general conclusions about how water quality affects reef ecosystems.
• Seabird bycatch data have been collected for longline and trawl fisheries operating in Australian waters to determine incidental mortality rates . • The presence of avian parasites, avian disease and marine pollution is monitored on Macquarie Island . • Research is being undertaken to develop techniques to survey populations of albatrosses and giant petrels remotely and rapidly . • A genetic profile of the population on Macquarie Island has been developed . [fig 6] • 5.2 Management
Title Heat loss in air of an Antarctic marine mammal, the Weddell seal Jo-Ann Mellish, Allyson Hindle, John Skinner, Markus Horning Purpose The purpose of this study is to be able to determine the varying temperatures in the seal’s body surface. The seals range from their body mass as well as their environmental conditions. The variance of surface temperature from the body regions is also a main objective. Methods 35 Weddell seals ranging from different life history stages were tested (a total of four life history stages). First, biological factors that would impact thermoregulation were collected.
The coral provides a protected habitat for the zooxanthellae and the zooxanthellae provide nutrients that the coral utilizes to survive and thrive. Fertilizer runoff occurs when fertilizer flows over the surface of the land and is carried by rain water into streams, rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Once in the ocean, the nitrogen found in fertilizer is absorbed by algae resulting in large algal blooms and excess macroalgae growth; this process is known as eutrophication (Kroon 1987). The overabundance of algae negatively affects zooxanthellae, and thus coral, because the algae and zooxanthellae compete for resources such as space and sunlight and zooxanthellae need sunlight for photosynthesis (Bell et al., 364). When zooxanthellae do not obtain an adequate amount of sunlight they become stressed and either leave their coral shelter or die (Bell et al., 364).
Marine biologists study, observe, and help animals. They may find solutions for a disease or clean up an oil spill. The world needs marine biologists to protect and preserve underwater ecosystems. When I grow up I want to be able to help the ocean environment by becoming a marine biologist. To become a marine biologist, you need a lot of education.
The Great Barrier Reef is also named one of the seven natural wonders of the earth as it inhabits colorful kinds of sponges and fish, an incredible variety of water plants and, of course, many different types of corals.4 The main aims of this term paper are to show why the Great Barrier Reef is a fragile ecosystem, the factors the reef depends on, how global warming boosted by human kind damages the reef, and other threats (mainly caused by human kind) the reef has to deal with, what the future will look like with a damaged and weak reef, as well as suggest some means of protection against the destruction of natural wonders like the Great Barrier
Environmental Protection Agency to conduct a five-year study of the Bay resources and water quality. Their study focused on three major problems of the Bay nutrient over enrichment, toxic substances and the decline of submerged aquatic vegetation. In 1983 the three surrounding states. “The District of Columbia, and the federal government signed a pact, the Chesapeake Bay Agreement of 1983, committing them to improve and protect [the] water quality of the Chesapeake Bay through coordinated activities” (Bockstael). Which they planned to improve and protect the water quality and living resources of the Chesapeake Bay estuarine system to restore and maintain the Bay’s ecological integrity, productivity, and beneficial uses and to protect public health.