The main themes of Before European Hegemony revolve around the many aspects of trade, disastrous events, and the many pivotal events and advancements which changed the course of the many rival nations within the era preceding total European dominance. Before European hegemony is a very thorough book, providing insights into the inner workings of several empires in the thirteenth century.The theme of missteps and misfortune among these earlier nations enables Abu-Lughod’s idea of European dominance with the thirteenth century to be solidified and supplemented with validity, with Abu-Lughod providing a flowing narrative of historical events which permitted Europe to take its place as . Abu-Lughod investigations and observations into the economics
Reza Aslan is an Iranian-American writer. Reza Aslan was born in Tehran, Iran. As the Iranian
Before Lewis and Clark explored it , the West was virtually untouched by Europeans. It was the home of many Native tribes., such as the Missouri, and Ohta Nations, the Tieton- Su, and the Nez Perce. It was also home to many unknow plants and animals, such as bison. The Lewis and Clark Expedition, faced many challenges and triumphs that changed the lives of many.
While the Indian Ocean and Trans-Saharan trade routes both encouraged and facilitated the spread of Islam, the Indian Ocean saw a more extensive diffusion of disease, and traded across water instead of land.
In 1453, Constantinople had fallen to the Ottoman Turks, leaving European countries to try to find an Atlantic route by which they could trade with the orient. Columbus, a Spanish sailor, sought to find that route. He believed he was successful, but in actuality he had stumbled upon a “new” continent. Though already inhabited by multiple native populations, Columbus claimed the lands he found for Spain,
The societies of West Africa, Europe, and North America exhibited similarities and differences in their religious beliefs, values, and government systems. These contrasts and similarities were further made apparent during European expansion across the Atlantic and the subsequent new cross cultural interactions that were created.
In Africa during the Post-Classical era, 600-1450 CE, the Saharan was no longer a barren wasteland hardly suitable for travel, but, an essential part of both North African and Sub-Saharan West African societies. Camels and caravans allowed for quicker and more effective traveling. With trading becoming increasingly popular in this area, it provided the resources to build new and larger political structures. During this era, Africa’s economy began to change and the western part of Sub-Saharan was no different. With the Trans-Saharan trade routes ability to increase with the help of wealthier Islamic states, it allowed for the spread of religious and political ideas such as larger empires and the Islamic faith in which both greatly influenced
The Ottomans were very into their architecture. Their artistic designs of windows, gates and roofs share characteristics with the Italian architecture and their basic structures found in mosques were adopted from the people of Anatolia. The Ottomans collected many different ideas from other countries and made them into one magnificent piece. This is why architecture was such a major aspect of Ottoman culture.
They made their journey towards the new world, just leaving everything else behind. If they would have thought about what to do if they ran into new people they could have handled things differently, instead of invading the Native Americans land and seem threatening. Due to this we see that the Native Americans and the way that they were treated affected them and this changed their whole world. We hear now a days that Christopher Columbus did not in fact find the land we call America but he did change the world. Was it for the better? For the Native Americans? No. But for the people now a days? Yes and No. During the Columbian Exchange, the Native Americans were greatly impacted by the contracting of foreign diseases brought over by the Europeans, the removal from their native lands, and finally ending on a happier note with what had been introduced.
It is universally acknowledged that society is made up of two parts—the men and the women. The Ottoman empire was no exception. From the 13th century to the early 20th, the Ottoman empire held a central role in the world of global politics, commerce, and culture. They conquered vast lands, spread Islam, and created a rich and glimmering culture. But, one must recognize that women, because they make up half of the population, played an important role in Ottoman society as romantic partners and financial agent; however, women were also dealt the role of being subservient to men.
Slavery was a life changing, horrific, and difficult time for the African Americans. They went through several trials daily. They came to America in 1619. Slavery became popular in the American colonies during the 18th century when slavery began to become well known and taken for granted. Slaves worked on tobacco,rice,cotton, and indigo plantations. It was from there that slavery was known to every colony.
It has been in the nature of the Ottoman Empire to conquer for gain from their beginning, but they have been fairly tolerant to other religions and active in the arts as well. Of all the Islamic empires the Ottomans have had by far the best relations with Europe and its largely Christian population. However, in relation to the other gunpowder empires, the Ottomans had a very tense relationship. The Ottomans were able to connect with Europe through the arts and achieve a great deal of impact on the western arts through their attempts to gain knowledge of one another and one another’s culture. The Ottomans also had a great amount
A lot of these buildings showed their concerns for the Islamic culture and Islamic traditions. Also, they incorporated Persian designs to make motifs such as the Achaemenid and Tehran designs. The analysis of the Ottoman and Safavid forms of architecture shows that there are a lot of similarities and differences. One of the differences is that the Ottomans and Safavids existed during different dynasties. The Ottomans ruled during the early 16th century before the Safavids took over. The architectural designs of the Ottomans were comprised of natural settings such as plant and floral designs with no forms of human figures. Whereas the Safavids used human beings as their figures of decorative art in architectural designs. Nevertheless, both of these empires somehow relied on foreign forms of art such as those drawn from the Turkish, Persian and Iranian people. In fact, some Islamic experts found that the Ottoman empire was founded by some Turkish tribes long before the Ottoman ruled as a
Throughout the 16th and 19th centuries, slave trade had become one of the most crucial parts for changing the world. Everything during this period was reliant on the slave trade. Consequently, it ended being beneficial for Europeans and disastrous for Africans.
In reading Ibn Battuta’s memoir of northern Africa, he gives us a view of the local Islamic religion and its culture. At the time, northern Africa was a place where the population was mostly black. Those people were of great faith and prayed as any practicing Muslim would. Underlying Battuta’s text, I found that when he wrote his impressions of the religious culture, he was astonished at the similarities and the many differences that were practiced compared to the middle east and what he had seen. Battuta was a very familiar with Islam and even went on hajj to Mecca where he, unlike the others, stayed and studied the religion (Gordon, 105).