After the invasion of the Fatimid Dynasty into Egypt, Islam began to spread through the rest of Africa. West Africa underwent many cultural changes under the rule of Islam. First, Africa changed when Islam’s impacts spurred a rise in education. Muslim scholars would go to Timbuktu to study and debate theology, and try to keep fellow scholars and African Muslims loyal to Islam and away from paganism. Timbuktu became a place of learning, enterprise, and culture.
There is no argument that his “discovery” was a turning point in history, however many argue that his accomplishments have been oversimplified and glorified. Michael Berliner wrote an article where he addresses that Columbus Day should be celebrated and Columbus deserves to be honored. While Berliner makes an intriguing argument for the continuous celebration of Columbus Day, he drops the ball with acknowledging the individualism of the Native Americans and all the eradication caused. The theme of Berliner’s article is pretty clear, Columbus should not be held responsible for all the havoc caused. When Berliner addresses the issue if Columbus really did discover the Americas, he is very hostile with his answer.
East and West Africa from 1000 to 1500 CE had profound differences in forms of government, with West Africa being kingdom based, and East Africa city-state based. The conversion of Eastern and Western African ruling elites compacted trading between themselves and Islamic traders from Mesopotamia, China, India, and as far away as Oceania. The relatively stable political environment from 1000-1500 CE in Sub-Saharan Africa attracted displaced peoples from the Abbasid empire in Northern Africa, with West Africa utilizing Trans-Saharan trade, and East Africa utilizing mariner trade routes. The East and West developed in clearly different ways, but paralleled each other in a way in which the political, social, and economic environments facilitated stable trade in the region, as well as a distinct blend between Islamic culture and African tradition. The primary difference in the political organization of both East and West African from 1000-1500 CE comes in the form of government.
Such as trading with countries in which other colonies do not like or have issues with could cause trade to stop between those two colonies or multiple colonies. Another thing that is important within the Articles of confederation is that laws could be passed by 9/13 states. That sounds fine and dandy but the story behind that makes it seem like it was pointless and unfair. There was resistance for ratification of the Articles of Confederation from New York, Pennsylvania,Virginia and Rhode island which had gotten the nickname “rouge island” because of all the resistance the continental congress had encountered from Rhode island. If you do some simple math the only states that needed to approve it were the ones who didn’t offer resistance to the Articles and wanted a new government.
When the Europeans began settling in the new land many cultural differences began to arise. Consequently, this left the English settlers and the natives with fear and confusion. The natives of the new land had never seen anything like the Europeans; they had white skin, huge ships, dressed differently, and they had many different weapons. Christopher Columbus in his narrative, Report of the First Voyage, described them as “timid beyond cure” (“Report of the First Voyage” 18). He also stated that when he would men ashore to contact the natives “people without number have come to them, and as soon as they saw them coming, they fled; even a father would not stay for his son” (“Report of the First Voyage” 18).
He is furious that his tribe would allow people to continually insult their ancestors and gods. Everyone in his tribe had conformed to this new religion. They not only survive but thrive because of the new trading ect. that the white men offered. However, Okonkwo doesn’t take to the white people as easily as the rest of his tribe.
As seen on the map on page 194, the most volume of slave trade came from Sub-Saharan Africa. These slaves were to be sent around the world, but mostly in the Americas. xThe slave trade that linked Africa to the Americas and Europe set in motion paths of cultural diffusions that transferred Africans and their cultures across the Atlantic Ocean. Slavery damaged the demographic and political strength of the African societies. West Africa was especially affected because that was where most slaves were taken.
According to Azizmohammadi & Kohzadi (2011) Song of Solomon gave its readers a glimpse of the black culture in the 20th century. As a result of racism that is still evident in the 20th century, the development of movements such as those pertaining to civil rights and Black power took place in history. It all started in 1619 when twenty (20) Africans was brought to Jamestown, Virginia and were sold for slavery. Their history was deeply rooted in their home, Africa. They were brought in America when the Europeans colonized America.
He was finally able to go to Spain where Ferdinand and Isabella sponsored him to go and spread Christianity. He found the New World and treated the ‘Indians’ horribly. ‘Indians’ (AKA Native Americans): These people lived in the Caribbean. When the Spanish arrived, they were treated poorly. Said to have been bare naked, these peaceful, timid people were mistaken for the natives of India by Columbus and got their nickname as ‘Indians’.
The discovery of the new world made a change in the world of the Native American as well as the Afro American. This change would eventually lead to high slave numbers. As a result the discovery of the new world by Columbus in 1492 several European countries went to the Americas and founded colonies there. However, when the Europeans came to the America’s to found the colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth century there were already people living there. Europeans know the people that were living there now as Native American, however at the time of the colonials they knew them as Indians.
Around 300 and 1400 BCE Africa had many achievements, but then the Europeans showed up and mess everything up. Acording to documents one and eight, it shows many trade routes that had been developed throughout Africa and now it is an important international trading center. In documents two and three wealth was an important thing in Africa that had contributed to many things that was used in so many ways in Africa. In documents two, four, five, six, seven, and eight there were many rulers and travelers throughout Africa that had many influences on Africa achievements, that had eventually gone downhill.