Socially and economically, the global silver trade from the mid-16th century to the 18th century had a negative effect on the rest of the world. The trade’s earlier benefits did not last long, as it eventually weakened the Spanish kingdoms and Ming dynasty. The dependence on trade and the uneven disbursement of the product lead to the fragility of the economics of those governments that depended on silver. The economic effects can be seen in document 2, 3, 4, and the social effects of the silver trade can be seen in documents 5, 6, 7, and 8. According to the documents, the middle man profited the most from the dependence on silver, while the countries importing and exporting silver suffered massive damages.
Without a consistent form of communication, trade, during the Middle Ages, was the biggest catalyst for the spread of religious reform, political organization, and societal development across Europe. How was the spread of these elements through trade important in the development of a more advanced, and modern society during this time period? The advancement of the Frankish Kingdom combined with the progress of the Mongols through Asia provided the proper situation to cultivate advancement in the Eastern World. Charlemagne came to power, and immediately it was clear that he was determined to make religious changes in Europe. He defeated the Pagan Saxons after a long brutal conflict with them, annexing all of Germany into his kingdom.
The improvements in technological, communication and banking system, the imperialism and the predominance of military force of the Europeans led to changes in the East and the West. While the connection between the East and the West hesitated after the Mongols lost its power, the Europeans were involved in advancing the Asian circulatory system and transformed into global trade system. Overall, the most important factor in these development and changes in Europe and Asia was the successful trade system that interconnected the two very different parts of the world in the most distinctive
However, many Mongol practices were shunned due to the major distrust that the Chinese developed for them. On the other hand, Yuan relations with the Muslims benefitted the next dynasty. Muslim contributions of astronomy and mapmaking was very important to Ming continuation of the sciences (“Yuan dynasty”). Last, with the loss of major overland trade routes such as the Silk Road, came the rise of the Indian Ocean trade routes (Fitzgerald 238). Oversea trade was heavily linked to newer practices of large-scale slavery and the interest that many countries had in exploration of the new world.
Throughout history, civilizations and nations have relentlessly competed to surpass one another. This is evident in the Age of Exploration in which explorers, such as Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Bartolomeu Dias, Prince Henry the Navigator, among many others, explored new lands and established overseas colonies for their respective mother countries. In these colonies, the Europeans converted the natives to Christianity, searched for gold and precious metals, and brought fame and glory to their countries. The goals of “God, gold, and glory” became a significant part of the Age of Exploration. Although the “three G’s” stimulated competition across the European states, the underlying push was by the Ottomans.
Brant Johnson History 305 Section 8 Globalization by Imperial Expansion The central features of European imperialism; monopolistic Capitalism, the Civilizing Mission, and competition amongst Imperial powers all lead to a shrinking community and globalization of the world’s population. These features helped to create complex trade routes connecting communities around the globe while also introducing interaction between indigenous populations with European colonists. However these relations were not always equally beneficial.
Throughout history, many impactful and memorable empires have arisen. Each empire has its own defining traits that lead to its success or demise. Some empires are very similar, while some posses many different traits. And although some can possess the same quality, their implication and utilization of that quality can create many gaps in the empire’s overall similarity to the other. Two powerful and historically important empires are the Ottoman empire, and the Mughal empire.
However, by 1000 CE, the European political leaders were already improving and became politically more stable than before because of the Mongol exchange. The Mongols trade from the East to the West, global trade expanded sharply under the Mongol Empire. Exchanges during the Mongol era by the Christian missionaries, Italian merchants and European diplomats. Intellectual exchanges of art and knowledge were continuous. Historian Jack Weatherford stated in his book that “The Mongols made culture portable: it was not enough to merely exchange goods, because whole systems of knowledge had to also be transported in order to use many of the new products” For example, drugs were not profitable unless one knew its medical
Religion, Riches, and Research Asia is often thought of being the most powerful country of the world. Hundreds of people have theories of Asia eventually becoming a powerhouse and dominating over the rest of the world. What has made Asia so powerful though? Stewart Gordon’s nonfiction book, When Asia Was the World, explores the time when Asia was truly the world and what made it that way through a series of stories. While Gordon’s book seems to be about travel shaping the Asian world, it is actually about the impact of religion on everyday life and culture in Asia.
Jared Diamond attempts to answer this question through his historical narrative on the rise of civilization presented in Guns, Germs, and Steel. By drawing from his personal experiences, Diamond offers an explanation for this situation by explaining how the geographical location of past societies determined their rate of technological and societal advancement, ultimately defining the amount of international power modern states possess today. Although Jared Diamond’s argument seems to successfully trace the source of inequality between states back to the fact that not all geographic regions have the same nor equal amount of resources available, his reasoning is not completely compelling.
Now that is over” “It was better to remain a hegemon than to strive for empire” is the post imperial attitude to empire due to the risk of losing hegemony if you lost empire. Herfried Münkler book Empires: The Logic of World Domination from Ancient Rome to the United States discusses these ideas of hegemony and empire and the reasons for, distinctions within and implications of empire. His work is a history of all the major empires that have occurred in the past 2500 years. It is a comparative work that looks at the life cycles of empires and the circumstances in which they occur. The analytical approach of this work reveals the ways in which each empire goes through similar phases of accession, consolidation (crossing the Augustan Threshold) and decline.
How the idea developed from Aristotle to Enlightenment provides us with deeper insight into the European thinking. Early modern Venetian records, made by permanent ambassadors in Constantinople of the Ottomans, played an important role in shaping the idea of Oriental despotism, as Lucette Valensi argues. These texts were ‘reliable indicators of change both in the political discourse of that part of Europe and in the perceptions of the Ottoman state between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries,’ because they were heavily detailed and accurate, containing information on the Ottoman army, navy, government and state, as well as manpower and resources. Although the ambassadors were not in favour of the Ottomans, there was a clear indication
4. Transaction costs…………………………………………………………………4 4. Factors which contributed to the decline of Hanza………………4 5. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………5 6. References……………………………………………………………………………5 In the 13th century, in northern Europe was formed an outstanding trading alliance called the Hanseatic League, also known as Hanza or Hansa.
“Sun’s genius of vision provided a feasible solution to the serious strife in the world and among all Asian nations”(Zhang 64). Between the 19th century and 20th century, not only China was in the control of the West, but many other nations were in the control of the West. For example, India was colonized by the Great British; Indonesia was colonized by Netherlands; Vietnam was colonized by France; the Philippines was colonized by Spain. Most nations in Asia were forced to join the global market and provided raw materials for the West. In this kind of situation, the nationalists, patriots were eager to save their motherlands and found proper ways to become independent and strong.
Although Genghis Khan brought suffering to the mass of the land he conquered along the way, his contribution to the prosperity of economy of the Eurasia continent should not be ignored. By promoting official trade route, elevating merchants’ social status and encouraging technological innovations, his empire benefited a lot from his policies. As well as neighbouring countries. The expansion of market eventually broke the boundaries between China and East Asia, opening the door for political, economic, and cultural interactions. His insightful thoughts left invaluable legacies to not only his successors, but also to people in contemporary society, inspiring us to be more innovative to make the world a better place.