Osteoporosis also known as porous bones is defined as the loss of bone mass in which the density and quality of bones are reduced, leading to bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures. It is known as a ‘silent disease’ as the loss of bone occurs without symptoms and progressively. Bone is made of tough, elastic fibers and materials and it is a living tissue that makes up and resorbs bone. Osteoblasts are the cells that make the matrix of the bone while osteoclasts are cells that resorb bone. Both are regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH), estrogen, vitamin D, calcitonin and other factors. The bones are in constant state of renewal and younger person ideally in the adolescence makes new bone faster than it breaks down old bone thus the …show more content…
Osteoporosis is one of the major public health issues, worldwide including Malaysia. As the average life expectancy of the world’s population increases, so does the proportion of the population suffering from osteoporosis. According to Kinsella and Wan (2008), from 2010 to 2040, the world population ≥65 years of age will double from about 506 million in 2008 to 1.3 billion by 2040, accounting for 14% of the world’s total population; those aged 80 or older is projected to double from 2010 until 2050. Osteoporosis will affect the overall health, social interaction and productivity of a person’s life as the fractures occur can lead to disability. Women who fell more often after their fracture reported decreased social participation independent of their physical function (Miller et al, 2009). Reductions in quality of life were observed especially after hip, spine and upper leg fractures (Adachi et al, …show more content…
Bones are living tissue. They have their own blood vessels which help them to growth. There are two types of bone tissues which are a hard outer layer called cortical and spongy inner layer called trabecular. The spongy bone consists of an open network that looks like air sacs. Spongy bone is much lighter than compact bone. Both compact and spongy tissue contains the same type of cells which are osteocytes, osteoblast, osteogenic and osteoclast. Both types of bone are alive and in a continuous state of being broken down and regenerated by the body. These 4 types of cells will help the bone remodeling. Remodeling is the process where is the old bone is removed and the new bone will
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
Collagen, like rope, aims to maximize bones elasticity. And cartilage acts as a buffer. Together these molecules cooperate in order to give bones structure, strength, and support. This relates to animals in the sense that all “animals have molecules that lie between their cells, specifically collagens and proteoglycans.” Through the molecules, cells are able to communicate amongst each other thereby knowing when and how to change their behavior.
Many people may assume that bones are all the same. However, bones can be classified by shape, structure, and bone markings. Bones are categorized as sutural, irregular, short, flat, long, and sesamoid bones based on their shape (Martini et al. 180). The long bones contain a diaphysis, epiphysis and metaphysis. The diaphysis in the long bone is made of compact bone which has a medullary cavity where marrow is kept.
Memories are an important component to Ng’s novel “Bone.” I think it’s important to note that “Bone” could be called a memory book, because of how it moves in reverse chronological order and through flashbacks. Memories make up the book, but they also play a role within the novel. Memories are a fragment of an important past event. Through memories, we keep the feelings and people in those memories alive, which is what Leila says in the quote above.
Bones are living tissue composed of living cells because of this they are a complex source of a wide variety of nutrients. They contain minerals which are embedded in protein, fat and fat soluble vitamins. They are a great source of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, zinc, and manganese. The central part of most bones contain marrow which is a highly nutritious source of blood forming elements. They also provide natural antioxidants including enzymes.
Paget Disease of Bone Paget disease is a condition that makes the bones grow faster than normal. This leads to bones that are larger and weaker than normal. Healthy bones rebuild themselves by destroying old bone and replacing it with new bone tissue. This process usually slows down as a person gets older.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta is a disorder of the bones which causes the bones to be very weak and fragile. The bones are weak due to poor quality or absence of collagen produced by the body. Usually this disease is inherited by the parents due to a genetic mutation. Osteogenesis imperfecta is usually present at birth.
Calcareous sponge’s skeleton is made of calcareous, star shaped structures or spicules. These usually have three points, but some species have two or four pointed spicules. C. Glass sponges (class Hexactinellida) are found deep in the ocean. Their tissues contain glass-like structural particles made of silica. D.
The FGFR3 protein spans across the cell membrane resulting in one end inside the cell and the other outside the cell allowing the protein to interact with growth factors outside the cell and receive signals for growth and development. The FGFR3 protein in the bone cells help control bone growth through a process previously mentioned called ossification, where cartilage is transformed into bone using calcium. When growth factors bind to the FGFR3, the protein is activated and FGFR3 is able to regulate ossification. When the Gly380Arg mutation occurs, it results in the FGFR3 protein being absent or damaged therefore preventing it from interacting with external growth factors causing the loss of control of ossification. This causes problems during bone development where cartilage fails to turn into bone.
As working as a Certified Nursing Assistant in a long term care rehabilitation facility, I encounter many elderly patients who are admitted for fall related injuries. The majority of patients are recovering from total knee and hip replacements as a result from falling at home or elsewhere. Fuller states, “Falls are the leading cause of injury related visits to emergency departments in the United States and the primary etiology of accidental deaths in persons over the age of 65 years…More than 90 percent of hip fractures occur as a result of falls, with most of these fractures occurring in persons of over 70 years of age” (Fuller, 2000, para.1). There are many factors that can contribute to the reason why individuals, particularly the elderly,
That’s why your toddlers don’t seem to break their knees even when they fall all the time – their knees are like sponges which absorb the compression and pressure whenever they fall. By the time they reach the age of 3 or 5 years, these cartilages start ossifying into bony kneecaps. Several more years after that, they bones lose their bounce, and their spills become more painful, until their skeletons begin creaking, just like the rest of the adults. Part 3: More Amazing Facts about Babies 1.
Bone cancer is an uncommon cancer that can begin in a bone or can spread, or metastasize, from another area of the body to the bone. Bone cancer can affect any bone in the body but it is more likely for the cancer to appear in the long bone that make up the arms and legs. There are several different types of bone cancer. Certain ones affect children and teenagers more than others, and certain ones affect adults and the elderly more than others. There are also different symptoms that you can look for to see if you have or think you might have bone cancer(Bone Cancer Symptoms, Signs).
The four types of skeletal bones provide the body with shape, support and protection of the vital organs. They also assist with movement. Long bones support the weight of the body and make movement possible. These include bones in the lower limbs (the tibia, fibula, femur (longest bone in the body), metatarsals, and phalanges) and bones in the upper limbs (the humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, and phalanges) Short bones are cube shaped and are located in the wrist (carpals) and ankle (tarsals) joints providing stability and some movement.
Bone remodelling is the process of maintaining and repairing bones. It is consists of gradual, controlled bone destruction and formation. Remodelling allows the bone structure to be modify without altering the overall skeletal size. In the adult skeleton, 5–10% of bone is remodelled every year. Remodelling does not occur consistently throughout the skeleton but remodelling occurs in spongy bone