Paget's Disease of bone is the result of abnormalities in the bone remodeling and breakdown process. This leads to bones within the body becoming quite misshaped and weak. A decrease in the activity of the cells, known as osteoclasts that participate in the breaking down of the bone cell matrix through the release of enzymes and mineral components is a contributing factor to Paget's disease. In addition to low osteoclast activity, the cells that build the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, known as osteoblasts, continue to increasingly build the bone. This subsequently leads to excessive formation and breakdown of bone.
Osgood-Schlatter Disease Osgood-Schlatter disease is an inflammation of the area below your kneecap called the tibial tubercle. There is pain and tenderness in this area because of the inflammation. It is most often seen in children and adolescents during the time of growth spurts. The muscles and cord-like structures that attach muscle to bone (tendons) tighten as the bones are becoming longer. This puts more strain on areas of tendon attachment.
Bone is a dynamic living tissue that is made up of metabolically active cells that are integrated into a rigid framework, 30% organic matrix, and 70% minerals. A vascular network of nutrient, metaphyseal, and periosteal vessels richly supplies adult bone. In a fracture or fusion model, the healing potential of bone, is decided by a variety of systemic and local factor including biochemical, biomechanical, cellular, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms. An incessantly occurring state of bone deposition, resorption, and remodeling facilitates the healing process (Kalfas, 2001). A lot of growth factors and regulatory proteins have been interlaced in bone repair.
4. Study justification 4.1 Background 4.1.1 Introduction Bone substitution is becoming more relevant in an age where the prevalence of bone disorders and conditions has a steep upward trend and where the population grows older, is more obese and has low physical activity. The expectations are aiming for a worldwide doubled incidence. (15) Because of the histological compatibility and the immunogenic advantage, autologic bone grafts nowadays still serve as the golden standard in bone substitution.
Describe the multiple causes of traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury is caused by a trauma/impact to the head that usually takes places in car accidents, while playing sports or performing an activity, from falling or during an assault. TBI in babies are usually associated with abuse, while toddlers usually suffer TBI from falling. School aged children sustain injuries most frequently from bicycle accidents, while older peers injuries are related to sports or car accidents. Car accidents are the most common cause of TBI in adults and adolescents.
Proximal Tibiofibular Joint Dislocation A proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation is a type of knee injury. The two bones of the lower leg connect at a joint on the outside of the knee. The thinner, outside bone is the fibula. The larger bone is the tibia.
Bone grafts Even normal overlying soft tissues cannot hide a deficient or defective skeleton and thus it is imperative to restore the craniofacial skeleton in major facial clefts. In cases with minor bony deficits that do not displace key facial landmarks, bone grafts suffice. When bone grafts are used to bridge a critical-size bone defect, they are expected to become incorporated into the bed. Incorporation of the bone graft in the recipient site involves two essential steps: first is the bony union between the edges of the graft to the edges of native bone segments, and second is graft remodeling, or gradual resorption of the graft material itself, concomitant with its replacement by new bone.89 Bone grafting can be performed at any age and
ABSTRACT Infections of periodontal or endodontic origin may result in increased periodontal probing depths with attachment loss adjacent to the root surface, bleeding on probing, suppuration, swelling of the gingiva ,tooth mobility, angular bone loss and pain on percussion. These signs and symptoms may be caused by plaque-associated periodontitis which begins at the margin of the gingiva and proceeds apically or by endodontic infections that enter the periodontal ligament at the apical foramen or through lateral or accessory canals and proceed coronally. The loss of posterior molars as a result of periodontal or endodontic infection leads to migration of teeth, collapse of the arch, supra eruption of opposing teeth, loss of supporting
Scoliosis is asymptomatic and it can be caused by vertebral malformations, neuromuscular disorders and syndromic disorders. It is a musculoskeletal disorder in which the spine curves instead of maintaining a straight alignment in the coronal plane. The scoliotic curve can be found in different parts of the body including cervical, thoracolumbar, lumbar etc. The degree of the curve is measured by the region that is located. Scoliosis is classified in three mayor’s categories: congenital, idiopathic, and neuromuscular.
Press Centre Fact Sheet by UNICEF Questions and Answers on Polio in general Q What is poliomyelitis disease? Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that invades the nervous system and can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours. Approximately one in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis, usually in the legs. Among those paralysed, five to ten per cent die when their breathing muscles become immobilized.