When LSA is used to compute sentence similarity, a vector for each sentence is formed in the reduced dimension space; similarity is then measured by computing the similarity of these two vectors . I. Because of the computational limit of SVD, the dimension size of the word by context matrix is limited to the several hundred. As the input sentences may be from an unconstrained domain (and thus not represented in the contexts) some important words from the input sentences may not be included in the LSA dimension space. II.
It seems that most authors only described the static properties of the Costas loop such as the derivation of the phase error in the locked state and the like. Based on methods developed earlier for the PLL, the authors could now derive similar expressions for all relevant acquisition parameters of the Costas loop. This enables the designer to determine the lock-in and pull-in ranges, and to estimate the duration of the corresponding processes. Because the systems considered are highly non linear, exact computation of such parameters is very difficult or even impossible. It has shown necessary therefore to introduce a number of simplifications.
In describing the sign system, Barthes used the concept of the denotation and connotation. A denotation is considered to be the first order semiotic system. The denotative sign system is “a system of meaning association without ideological content” (Barthes as cited in Griffin, 2012, 336). On the other hand, connotation is regarded as the second order semiotic system. The connotative sign system is the “mythic signs that has lost its historical referent” (Barthes as cited in Griffin, 2012, 337).
While, the Factor Analysis is the approach that is used for data reduction in different way than principal component analysis. It is the measurement model of latent variable. This cannot be measured directly with one variable rather, it is observed through the relationship between x and y variables. 2. The general approach (Kaiser) is to retain factors with eigenvalue ≥ 1 and eliminate factors with eigenvalue
There are two fundamental approaches to qualitative data analysis: deductive and inductive approaches. This study used an inductive approach. In its purest form, qualitative analysis is led by an inductive approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). “Inductive analysis means that the patterns, themes, and categories of analysis come from the data; they emerge out of the data rather than being imposed on them prior to data collection and analysis” (Patton, 1980:306). The inductive approach involves analyzing data with little or no predetermined theory, structure or framework.
Mold hypotheses, such as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, underestimate that language is a mold regarding which classifications of thought are thrown though shroud hypotheses received by the great universalism assume that dialect is a shroud or the dress of thought gathering the requirements of the standard thought classes of its speakers, in particular the same thought can be expressed in different ways. Universalists talk about that one can say whatever one wishes to say in any languages, and that whatever one expresses in one dialect can simply be interpreted into an alternate. Chandler (1994) likewise contends that, also, there P. Birjandi, S. Sabah - A Review of the Language-Thought Debate: Multivariant Perspectives 57 exists a related perspective held by, say, Behaviorists, to notice among others, on the premise of which dialect and thought are esteemed as indistinguishable. In line with this stance, intuition is respected to be completely and altogether phonetic; that is to say, there is no non-verbal thought, and no interpretation from thought to dialect happens. Putting it this way, thought is seen as completely controlled by
The percentage of Metadiscourse marker use and the frequency of these markers must be taken into consideration. Definition of the Key Terms Concordance: Richards and Schmidt (2010) define concordance as, “A list of all the words which are used in a particular text or in the works of a particular author, together with a list of the contexts in which each word occurs (usually not including highly frequent grammatical words such as articles and prepositions). Concordances have been used in the study of word frequencies, grammar, discourse and stylistics” (p. 113). Corpus (plural corpora): There are different definitions for the term ‘corpus’. For example, Tavakoli (2012), has defined the term as “A collection of naturally occurring samples of language which have been collected and collated for easy access by researchers and material developers who want to know how words and other linguistic items are actually used.
……………………………………. (4) The extent to which the lending officials use observable applicant characteristics is represented by the coefficients of y. On the other hand, the extent to which, lending officials methodically select applicants using the unobservable variables is represented by the correlation of p. Since the selection equation is fully observed, it is possible to estimate it separately all the time. According to Meng and Schmidt (1985), this will not be efficient unless p = 0. Likewise, when p is not equal to zero, a logic method or standard probit, used in the default equation provides a set of coefficients that are biased.
Palmer, 1990 defined that “An idiom is an expression whose meaning cannot be inferred from the meanings of its parts”. According to Seidl and McMordie (1988), idiom is a group of words whose meaning is different from their individual meaning. These words are arranged in a strange and illogical way. Also, it is acceptable if these words have an incorrect grammar structure. This definition seems to be more detailed and complete.
Ohanian (1990, 1991) defines source credibility by three dimensions, adapted from Hovland et al. (1953) and Berlo et al. (1969): attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness. Munter (1986, 1987) defines source credibility by five dimensions: goodwill, morality and fairness, expertise, rank and image. Though the Berlo (1969), Ohanian (1990, 1991) and Munter (1986, 1987) theories appear to differ substantially, Kenton (1989) claims that many of the differences are merely semantic