The Societal Transformation Effect of WWII WWII helped create what culture and society in America looks like today. In Ronald Takaki’s Double Victory, Takaki examines a narrative from the viewpoint of different individuals and societies and their experiences surrounding WWII. In 1940, the U.S. passed an act that revised the existing nationality laws more comprehensively. This revision stated that a person born in the U.S., as well as being born abroad to a parent of a U.S. citizen, was eligible for nationality. The Nationality Act of 1940 also outlined the process for which immigrants could become a citizen through naturalization. However, it did outline specifications concerning race (Pineiro-Hall). After the start of WWII, many societies …show more content…
Roosevelt signed into law the Selective Service Act. This act included the prohibition of an integrated of black and white regimes. President Roosevelt’s refusal to allow a mixed army prompted anger and disbelief in the African-American community. George Schuyler opposed the Jim Crow army and stated “Our war is not with Hitler in Europe, but against Hitler in America. Our war is not to defend democracy, but to get a democracy we’ve never had.” A young soldier wrote a letter to the NAACP “If I fight, suffer, or die it will be for the freedom of every black man to live equally with other races. If the life of the Negro in the United States is right as it is lived today, then I would rather be dead” (Takaki 23). Camp conditions for black soldiers were degrading, they could not go to church services, and other training programs were segregated. Despite these conditions, African Americans contributed significantly to the war effort with support work and had some of the toughest battalions, including the well-respected 99th Pursuit Squadron and 332nd Fighter Group. In 1941, President Roosevelt signed the Executive Order 8802 which prohibited the discrimination of workers in the defense or Government because of race, creed, color, or national origin. This, however, did not do much to combat America’s race problem and caused animosity between whites and blacks. Many race riots and “hate strikes” happened as a result. Although some black soldiers were …show more content…
They felt that this country was taken away from them by the white man and should not be required to help in the case of attack, but when war was declared against the Axis powers, The Navajo Nation declared: “We resolve that the Navajo Indians stand ready… to aid and defend our government and its institutions against all subversive and armed conflict and pledge our loyalty to the system and a way of life that has placed us among the greatest people of our race” (Takaki 60). Altogether forty-five thousand Indians served in the U.S. armed forces. Despite this, Indian workers received lower pay that that of whites, In the cities, Indians also experienced discrimination. Ignatia Broker of the Ojibway wrote “Although employment was good because of the labor demand of the huge defense plants, Indian people faced discrimination in restaurants, night clubs, retail and department stores… and worst of all, in housing” (Takaki
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The Navajo Native Americans played a large role in World War II. First off, they used their language to communicate coded messages. The text says,¨Navajo Code Talkers, warriors who used their native language as their primary weapon during World War II (WWII).¨ This means, The Navajo language was primarily used to tell the Allies what Japan had planned. Also, Twenty-nine Navajos created a code from their language. The selection reads,¨The first 29 Navajos to be recruited for the group, dubbed the "Original 29.
U.S. Soldier’s Respond on Truman’s Executive Order Many white soldiers opposed the Executive Order 9981 by protesting and retiring from the U.S. armed forces, in spite of the fact that issuing this order is one small spark of innovation of equality. African-Americans were still battling essentially with discrimination in the military because some regiments were still segregated. The order was not taken full effect after the Korean War.
On July 26, 1948, President Harry Truman signed Executive Order 9981 which ended segregation in the Armed Forces. Executive Order 9981 states “It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services.” These were the words that granted everyone in the United States Armed Forces equal treatment despite race, color, or creed. This was made possible by civil rights activists, such as Philip Randolph (Lilley). Their valiant efforts led to the end of discrimination in the United States Armed Forces and played a major role in the creation of EO 9981.
“In 1948, President Harry Truman enacted Executive Order No. 9981 - directing equality of treatment and opportunity in all of the United States Armed Forces, which in time led to the end of racial segregation in the U.S. military forces.” From 1941 to 1946, 992 pilots were trained in Tuskegee. 84 of those pilots lost their lives in accidents or during combat. One misconception is that the Tuskegee Airmen never lost a bomber. This is obviously not true.
During World War I and World War II, several hundred of American Indians joined the U.S. military and used traditional tribe language as a source of a weapon. The military asked if they could use their tribal language to create a secret communication. America’s enemies were never able to decipher the codes the American Indians sent. They became known as “Code Talkers”, and are twentieth-century American Indian heroes who notably assisted the victory in the U.S. and its allies. History of Code Talkers
Suppressed. Marginalized. Segregated. While the valiant military unit receives most of their laudatory reputation from the color of their dark skin in the contrasting pale field of soldiers, their story of overcoming the suppression, marginalization, and segregation should hold center stage. Before 1940, African Americans had a very low attendance in any branch of the military because of the ubiquitous segregation and an influence of pessimistic stories such as the 67-page report title The Use of Negro Manpower in the War which depicted the men with harsh stereotypes implying their ineptness and lack of ability.
In spite of the implementation of Executive Orders 8802 and 9981 in 1941-1948, which required all defense industries and the army to take affirmative action to ensure employment practices were devoid of discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin, the jury trial in Till's case ignored the strides made by the government towards lessening discrimination in the country. Although the executive orders were formulated to guarantee hopes of equality for African Americans in a white supremacist society, the all-white jury's acquittal of Till's murderers exposed the failure of the justice system to protect African Americans at the national level and emphasized the pressing need for change that was lacking in previous enforcement. The heinous murder of Till by white supremacists exemplified the impunity with which they treated African Americans, while the judges' bias during the trial was a reflection of the broader societal context in which they functioned. Till's case made evident the failure of previous government actions, and the previous hope of equality that the government created was not followed through as the judicial branch's decision in Till's case was not racially monitored. The control of the government by white supremacists and the resulting racial inequality were challenged by the African American community's opposition to the white judges who favored the murderers.
Roosevelt. The executive order that it enforced was executive order 8802 which prohibited discrimination within the defense industry. This order was created in response to outrage by African American leaders at the fact that African Americans, who were fighting, like anybody else, were forced into segregated units and still faced discrimination upon returning home. The defense industry refused to cooperate with the FEPC up until 1943 when FDR had the budget of the committee increased and replaced part time staff with full time staff around the country. The committee succeeded in allowing African Americans to assist in the war effort, but was dissolved in 1946 by a mostly southern led congress.
Roosevelt’s executive order. Even with these new, increasing opportunities, racism is still extremely present. In the workplace, black workers are treated differently than whites, even when working the same jobs. In the story, we see the negative feelings from the white workers towards their African American counterparts which they refer to as “colored boys”. In Chapter 4, we see Bob being refused help at work by the white workers.
While there were exceptions of individuals fighting for more than equality by law for African Americans, such as John D. Baldwin who argued “a question concerning human rights” (Frederickson 379), there were racist ideals held that transcended political parties and regional affiliations alike. Radical democrats sought the most resistance with political leaders such as Representative James Brooks who preached in opposition to integration by claiming “the negro is not the equal of the white man, much less his master” (Frederickson 379). Arguments of black inferiority became based upon the false ethnology presented by Josiah Nott that physically and mentally ranked the black race below other races. Even radical republicans became contradictory in their views claiming African Americans were different due to their inability to conquer and dominate like white people had; insinuating that white domination could not be challenged. Although there was a period following the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 and 1868 in which former slaves were granted citizenship, their involvement in politics became rendered by the lack of education previously provided to slaves and inability of “withstanding the economic, political, and paramilitary opposition of the white majority” (Frederickson 382).
In April of 1861, the first month of the civil war, Alfred M. Green gave a speech to encourage his fellow African Americans to “prepare to enlist” and fight for the north. The north was fighting to preserve the Union and end slavery while the opposing side, the south, fought to defend slavery. Although they could not fight in the war, and did not want to, he felt that African Americans should “strive to be admitted to the ranks.” In his speech, Green uses many different methods to persuade them to join the Union forces.
During July of 1941, millions of jobs were being created, primarily in densely-populated areas, as the United States prepared to enter World War II. These densely-populated areas had large numbers of migration, specifically from African Americans, who sought to work in defense industries, but were often met with rejection and discrimination within the workplace. A. Philip Randolph, a civil rights activist and president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, and other black leaders, met with Eleanor Roosevelt and members of the President’s cabinet. They demanded action from Franklin Delano Roosevelt to be taken towards eliminating racial bias in the workplace; they threatened to commence a March on Washington if an executive order was not
As the war continued, in 1943, a quota was imposed allowing the number of African American males serving in the armed forces to be no greater than their numbers in the overall population, about 10.6 percent. At first, African American males serving were limited to work in labor units, but this restriction also changed as the war progressed, as soon after they were ultimately allowed in