It has substituted conventional film mammography. In digital mammography, an electronic image of the breast is stored as a computer file. It offers many practical advantages and patient conveniences. The digital machine is fast, resulting in patients spending a shorter period in uncomfortable positions, there's no waiting for film to be developed, digital images are instantly accessible. The technologist can assess the quality of the images as they're taken, Brightness, darkness, or contrast can be manipulated and parts of an image can be magnified after the mammogram is complete which makes it simpler to notice delicate differences between tissues and transmission of images from one physician to another is quick and easy.
Serologic testing is most simple and helpful. B henselae is difficult to culture. In selected cases, excision of an involved node is useful for histopathologic examination. Fine-needle aspira- tion biopsy is less invasive and may be preferred if feasible. Conventional stains can demonstrate granulomas and stellate necrosis, and silver stains can detect suggestive bacillary forms.
After treatment, addition, new blood vessels may develop. The photodynamic therapy also aims to destroy the fragile blood vessels, but this is achieved by injecting a drug that adheres to the surface of said vessel, and subsequently illuminating the eye with a light that activates the drug. The activated drug destroys blood vessels only, without affecting healthy tissues. This treatment does not restore lost vision, but retards the progress of the disease.
These improvements typically comes in because resolution of MSCT and MRI were not enough for forensic analysis (Thali et al., 2004). Micro-CT is basically a specialised CT with much higher spatial resolution that is very useful in analysing bone structure with patterned injury (Thali et al., 2003). Micro-MR, on the other hand, means magnetic resonance microscopy or MRM. According to Thali et al. (2004), it is very useful in analysing soft tissues injury patterns.
Radiology continues to be used in a wide verity of industries where the equipment is used to monitor security as well as measure quality but in the medical field, radiology has remains limited due to the limitation of radiation that can be used on people safely. To compensate, researchers and scientist and developers have moved their attention from increasing the radiation dosage to actually using the acceptable dosses to capture clearer images which can also be produced faster. In addition to image quality, and speed the digital radiology equipment can also capture different X-Ray resolutions in a single exposure thus reducing the cost and time required to secure different
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy allows earlier oral intake, shortens hospital stay, enhances earlier return to normal activity , minimal postoperative pain, and improves cosmesis over open cholecystectomy. Thus, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has continued to gain widespread clinical approval, and it is now the standard procedure for benign diseases of the gallbladder; However, there is still a substantial percent of patients in whom Laparoscopic cholecystectomy cannot be successfully done and for whom conversion to open surgery is required. A previous abdominal surgery has been reported as a relative contraindication to Laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  Previous abdominal surgery particularly is associated with difficult insertion of the initial trocar and obtaining adequate exposure to the gallbladder.
The argon laser is commonly used to activate the drugs used in photodynamic therapy. What are the advantages of laser therapy? Lasers are more accurate than conventional surgical instruments (scalpel or knife), so cause less damage to normal tissues. Consequently, patients usually have less pain, bleeding, swelling and scarring.
() With introduction of ultrasound (US) in medicine as a medical diagnostic tool by Dr. Karl Theo Dussik, an Austrian neurologist (),anesthetists tried to test it for possibility of improvement of the quality of injections . US is the first widely used imaging instrument in regional anesthetia practice()176because it is portable, free of radiation risk, and relatively inexpensive when compared with other imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance and computed tomography. () And It is noninvasive, safe, easy to use, and can be quickly performed. So USG became a promising alternative to traditional landmark-based techniques.
Ultrasound can be used as an alternative to x-ray for many investigations to minimize the use of radiation. The utility of ultrasound in the NICU lies in its portability, reliability and lack of radiation exposure. In NICU, ultrasound can be used for a wide range of indications, such as research, proceed guidance and rapid assessment of critical emergencies. In addition, ultrasound can be a guidance to improve safety and success rate of clinical procedures, such as umbilical vein catheter (UVC) placement. Given its availability and reliability, ultrasound can be used frequently and longitudinally to follow-up certain procedure.
While advantages of plateletpheresis : are exposure to single donor rather than multiple , so it can easily doing tests for donor and recipient such as HLA type and blood typing . and because platelets separated automatically during donation and usually transfused on same day ,platelets last longer and thus less platelets need to be given to the patient. also repeat the procedure after 72 hour if possible ,and decrease the chance of allo immunization and transfusion transmitted disease .while the disadvantage is , For a unit of apheresis Platelets hospitals paid an average of $535.15 (Bi, 2011)because plateletpheresis is expansive as it involves using a very skillful machine .and time consuming about 2 hours. (KWleong) Bothe pooled platelets and plateletpheresis contain WBC that may cause febrile non hemolytic transfusion reaction and other problems , so leukocyte are reduced before(as filter in Apheresis ) or after storage but not at bedside , to reduce the problems that may lead to platelets