Biological Biodiversity

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products such as nitrogen and phosphorous released from the agriculture sector, and also the mineral deposition from industry. Ozone layer is depleted due chlorofluorohydrocarbons and some other chemicals released into the atmosphere, which permits penetration of ultraviolet light, which can be detrimental for biological organisms such as marine plankton communities (Sivasakthivel and Reddy, 2011). Introduced species / biological invasions Globally, impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) are the major threats to biological diversity. To understand the impact of biological diversity one should know the definition of biodiversity. Biodiversity is composed of three major features, namely, functional, compositional and structural diversity…show more content…
Due to directional selection and rapid migration, climatic conditions reduce the genetic diversity of species which in turn affect functions of ecological system (Meyers and Bull, 2002; Botkin et al., 2007). On the other hand studies are concentrated on impacts of higher biomes, whereas the genetic effects of climatic condition were studied for small group of species. Apart from this, different effects on population will alter the web of interactions at biomes level (Gilman et al., 2010; Walther, 2010). Variation in climate leads to alteration in cyclic and seasonal phenomena of flowering and insect pollinators, leads to conflicts in plant and pollinator inhabitants which eliminates both the plant and insect pollinator (Kiers et al., 2010; Rafferty and Ives 2010). Various adaptations of interspecific competition such as commensalism, mutualism, parasitism, predation, amensalism, neutralism and protocooperation also modify community structure and ecosystem functions (Lafferty, 2009; Walther, 2010; Yang and Rudolf, 2010). In higher organisms climate can persuade alteration of vegetative community which envisage affecting biome integrity. According to the study conducted by Millennium Ecosystem Assessment there is a shift of 5-20% terrestrial ecosystem, especially coniferous forest, tundra, scrubland, savanna and boreal forest biome…show more content…
World population was supposed to exceed to 8-10 billion during the middle of the century, where a large number of growth will take place in humid tropics which is having richest form of biodiversity. Population plays a key role in the loss of biodiversity, to meet the needs of growing population more pressure has created on the components of biodiversity (ecosystems, genes and species)( Myers, 1994). Urbanization led to loss in the biodiversity, where the household demographic aspect is an important cause for ecological resource consumption (Liu et al., 2003; Richard and Gorenflo, 2011). Rapid species growing areas possess a high number of threatened and vulnerable plant species due to over-exploitation and habitat loss of population and some other external pressures pose a high risk for the extinction of plant and animal species, it takes place where the humans are entirely dependent on biological diversity for their basic occupation (Cincotta and Engelman, 2000). Many parts of the world especially in Asia and Africa the threatened species and people habitually present on the same localities (Craig et al., 2009). The place where human growth rates is high the numbers of threatened species are more likely to increase (Mittermeier, 1999). Habitat loss is the predominant loss of biodiversity, current tendency and
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