The depletion of biodiversity will have profound consequences for the functioning of ecosystem services. For example, the loss of tropical forests will probably result in a reduction in carbon storage, an increase in atmospheric pollution and reductions in human health (Mace et al., 2012). The significance of biodiversity for human wellbeing has long been recognised, however biodiversity loss at the global scale continues (Cardinale et al., 2012). Biodiversity is threatened by several human-induced processes, among which are land use changes, invasive species and climate change (Trakhtenbrot et al., 2005). Land use changes, such as landscape modification and habitat fragmentation, are believed to have a negative impact on almost all taxonomic groups (Fisher & Lindenmayer, 2007).
Will increased area affect the species diversity of insects in Sacred Groves? A case study from the Western Ghats, India. Introduction Degradation and conservation of biodiversity are always considered as a global issue. The sum of various local species richness will reveals the effect of global environmental changes on the biodiversity (Obrist & Duelli 2010). The various taxa estimation will gives give the actual status of biodiversity and many available informations, such as geographic ranges of the species, population status, habitat and ecology, threats to the species, needs of conservation measures (Olson and Dinerstein 1998).
The competitive advantage is facilitated through habitats vulnerability (due to global climate change, overgrazing and localized nutrient enrichment), different evolutionary histories and the lack of natural enemies in the new habitat (Mack 1989; Antonio et al. 1992, Mack et al. 2000; Keane and Crawley 2002). As a result, plant invasion has been identified as a major threat to the biodiversity of natural habitats (Vitousek et al. 1997).
1.0 Introduction Tropical forest known as one of the greatest bastions of biodiversity in this planet receives a major threat poses by rapid deforestation. Biodiversity face the greatest global threat due to the intensification and expansion of agriculture (Tilman, 2001; Donald, 2004 & Green, 2005). The process of breaking up large patches of forest into smaller part is called forest fragmentation (Brown & Jacobson, 2005). Small fragments of forest typically exist after deforestation, urbanization, or other modified lands that are totally unsuitable for most species that occupied in the forest whether by nature or design. These phenomena may reduce biodiversity by making it more difficult for some species to either breed or find food (Wade, 2003).
Therefore, it is possible to claim that it has a 'glocal' - both global and local - dimension. The exploitation of resources and the massive use of chemicals involved with intensive agriculture have contributed to permanently damage the environment, thus endangering the development of different species (Croall, 2014). In fact, intensive agriculture is causally related to increases in water and air pollution, decrease of soil fertility, and soil erosion (Lang et al., 2009). All of these, taken together, can be held responsible for the destruction of natural habitats of a number of species of wildlife (Lawrence, 2008). Intensive farming has also been linked to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions (Croall, 2014): intensive livestock accounts for nearly one fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions, rivalling with the emissions from the global transport sector (Lawrence, 2017c).
Introduction and Justification: Introduction: Verbena bonariensis is a fast growing NEMBA category 1b alien invasive species known for growing in grasslands, moist areas and along pavements and roadsides (Invasive Species South Africa, 2018) The plant possess threat to local plant life as it takes up growing space and uses up resources such as water. Justification: I live one street away from Delta Park and have noticed the clean-up operations that are ongoing in the Florence Bloom Bird Sanctuary. I would like to further my understanding on alien invasive species Verbena bonariensis, which is the main targeted alien invasive in the sanctuary and the reason as to why the plant pose a threat to the local plant life of the sanctuary. Hypothesis: The average amount of Verbena bonariensis will be higher than the average amount of other natural occurring plants growing in the Florence Bloom Bird Sanctuary. Aim: To determine the average amount of Verbena bonariensis versus the average amount of other natural occurring plants growing in the Florence Bloom Bird Sanctuary.
Coral reefs are dying at an alarming rate thanks to many factors, mostly caused by humans. For instance, when we pollute the earth and our oceans by burning greenhouse gases, we cause climate change. This affects the coral as they can’t withstand the water raising by only a few degrees. This often causes coral bleaching, which kills these animals. Also, storms can destroy reefs, also often caused by humans affecting the environment.
Several efforts have been made over recent years to maintain a safe and clean environment. However, environmental pollution is getting worst and poses a major threat to the Earth. Environmental pollution is “the contamination of the physical and biological components of the Earth to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected” (Kemp, 1998, p. 129). There are five known pollution which is in the form of air, water, land, noise and light (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1). The first type of pollution is air pollution.
The depletion of the forests and trees are threatening the community of human beings. Indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides are harmful to living creatures. Moreover, animals act as regulating elements in the dynamic equilibrium of nature and their disappearance can have severe consequences. Among the endangered species are the orangutan, rhinoceros, falwn and the major pollinators in growing crops such as honeybees, humming birds and bird wing butterflies. Industralization can make various kinds of pollution such as air
Water pollution is one of the biggest threats to the environment today. There are several sources of water pollution ranging from sewage and fertilizers to soil erosion. The impact of water pollution on wildlife and their natural habitat can be immense. One of the main causes of water pollution which I am going to talk about in this paper is using chemical in agricultural land. For growing good crops often we used chemical fertilizer which can be harmful for environment.