The rate of turnover of the skeleton approaches 100% per year in the first year of life, declining to about 10% per year in late childhood, and then usually continues at approximately this rate or more slowly throughout life. Much of the turnover of bone during growth results from bone-modeling, but presumably at least some remodeling also occurs. After the completion of skeletal growth, the turnover of bone results primarily fromremodeling. Modeling and remodeling result from coordinated resorption and formation of bone over extensive regions of the tissue, over prolonged periods of
They are responsible for making sure old bone goes out and new bone is laid down. They are also used to transmit signals through the body through canaliculi's. Osteoclasts: These are actively involved in the process of bone reabsorption (and therefore the process of forming new bones). Reabsorption and formation of bone becomes less smooth and uniform the older you get. More osteoclasts can form than osteoblasts, in this case osteoporosis can manifest itself.
Within the first three days of wound repair, basic FGF from macrophages initiate angiogenesis and the subsequent injury–induced hypoxia stimulates the production of VEGF by epidermal cells followed, which sustained the angiogenesis stimulus for the next four days. Next, both plasmin and collagenase works synergistically to digest basement membranes so as to allow endothelial cells to migrate and form new blood vessels at the injured site. Once the wound is filled with new granulation tissue, angiogenesis ceases and many of the new blood vessels undergo apoptosis. On a similar note, there is continued growth of damage blood
Within the first three days of wound repair, basic FGF from macrophages initiate angiogenesis and the subsequent injury–induced hypoxia stimulates the production of VEGF by epidermal cells. VEGF sustains the angiogenesis stimulus for the next four days. Next, both plasmin and collagenase works synergistically to digest basement membranes so as to allow the endothelial cells to migrate and form new blood vessels at the injured site. Once the wound is filled with new granulation tissues, angiogenesis ceases and many of the new blood vessels undergo apoptosis. On a similar note, there is continued growth of damage blood
Bone remodelling is an ongoing process of renewing and recycling of bone matrix or tissue. It involves 2 processes which is osteolysis, the removal of minerals collagen and fibre (matrix) from the bone by secreting the acids and proteolytic enzyme by the osteoclast, and osteogenesis, the process of producing new bones by addition of minerals and collagen fibre to bone by osteoblast. Remodelling of bone takes place in different rate in the region of the body. Even after the bone reaches their peak bone mass, they still continually remodelling the bone. The activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts need to be balanced so there will not be too much new tissue produced and make the bone heavy and thicker, or too much loss of calcium and minerals that can cause osteoporosis.
The long bone is that it allows movement , particularly in the limbs eg the femur (thigh bone) tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) humerus (upper arm bone), the radius and the ulna (lower arm). Metacarpals (hand bones) metersals (foot bone) and phalanges (finger and toe bone) Functions of the skeleton The skeleton is the framework of the body; it supports the softer tissue and provides point of attachment for most skeletal muscles. The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body’s internal organs, redusing risk of injury to them. Skeletal bones are attached to the muscle contract they cause bone to move, packed with over 200 bones, skeletons protect, shape support and move our bodies as well as producing red blood cells in the bone
Hip dysplasia (HD) is associated with an abnormal joint structure and laxity of the muscles, connective tissue (CT) and ligament that normally support the joint. As this joint laxity develops, the articular surfaces on the femur and in the acetabulum loose contact with each other. This separation within the joint is known as a subluxation and will cause drastic changes in both the size and shape of the articular surfaces. All dysplastic dogs are born with normal hips but the soft tissues surrounding the joint develops abnormally due to the dogs genetic make-up, and possibly other environmental factors, which is what causes the subluxation (1). The subluxation and remodeling of the hip is what leads to the symptoms that are associated with HD.
A fatigue result can result from mechanical stresses applied to a bone too frequently, more often that the bone structure can withstand without sustaining incremental damage / weakness over time. A pathological fracture is a break or loss continuity in the substance of a bone when the bone itself is either abnormal or diseased
REVIEW OF LITRATURE ANATOMY OF KNEE JOINT The embryological development of knee joint occurs from the leg bud in the 4th week. The formation of femur, tibia and fibula occurs in the 6th week. The knee joint embryologically arises from blastemal cells with the formation of the patella, cruciate ligaments and meniscus in the 7th week.22 Knee joint is formed by two condylar joints between the femoral condyles (medial and lateral both) and the corresponding tibial condyles. Knee joint also has a gliding joint between the patella and the corresponding femur articular surface. The fibula is not involved directly in forming the articular surface of the knee joint.23 Figure 1: Knee joint.
A worse thing can happen, when the force is greater it may pull away a bone along with the tendon. As a result, the tip of the finger can no longer straighten itself. Even a minor movement like folding your clothes can cause this kind of injury. This kind of fracture is identified as an avulsion. The long, ring and pinky fingers are the most likely to be