Foaming is carried out by the solid state foaming process. CO2 solubility in PSU CO2 solubility in PSU increases with a decreasing foaming temperature. PSU samples were foamed in a temperature range of -10 to 600C. Figure 22 Solubility of CO2 in PSU as a function of saturation temperature (Courtesy to ) Relative density Figure 23 Relative density as a function of foaming temperature for samples initially saturated
These cations have a tendency to combine with anions (negatively charged ions) in the water to form stable salts. The type of anion found in these salts has therefore been used to distinguish between the two types of hardness-carbonate and non carbonate hardness (Table2). Table 2 shows that carbonate hardness is caused by Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions combined with anion (CO3 2- or HCO3 - or OH-) to form a salt. In contrast, non-carbonate hardness forms when Ca2+ and Mg2+ combine with anything other than carbonate, bicarbonate, and hydroxide ions. Carbonate hardness is sometimes called temporary hardness because it can be removed by boiling the water.
The seawater is a solution of salts that, usually, has a constant composition. It is dissolved in variable amounts of water. The analysis of ions in the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast are listed in Table 3 with typical standard seawater analysis according to . All elements are dissolved in seawater and are found as ions – electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms. Saline water solution (composed from pure water and seawater) is used as electrolyte with concentrations of 25%, 37.5%, 50%, 70%, 85% and 100% of seawater.
How does that explain what happened to the can? Before the can was placed into the ice bath, the temperature was very high. This meant that the vapor pressure was also high; the molecules were moving fast, hitting the sides of the can with a lot force and hitting the sides frequently. When the can was placed in the ice bath, the water molecules in the can quickly became liquid when the temperature changed. There was a drop in kinetic energy, so the vapor pressure inside of the can became extremely low.
Water potential is often represented by the Greek letter, psi ψ .The higher the rate of collisions of the water molecules with the membrane, the greater the pressure on it. This pressure is called water potential. Water always moves from higher water potential to lower water potential. The standard unit for water potential is kilopascals (kPa), which is also the unit pressure. Pure water is designated a water potential of zero which has the highest water potential under atmospheric pressure at 25°C.
However, the gel at lowest concentration cannot withstand wear tear and very fragile. Several variable influences the immobilization yield in alginate bead which are concentrations of sodium alginate, calcium chloride and curing time. The shape of beads perfectly spherical is due to high viscosity at higher concentrations vice versa at lower concentrations. The droplet fall easier into the CaCl2 solution when at lower concentrations compared to the high concentrations of sodium
(1977) have developed a method for determination of sodium alkyl sulfonates. The sodium alkyl sulfonates (PS) prepared from paraffin by sulfoxidation reaction are used as effective anionic detergents. The products are mixture of secondary sulfonate isomers. The analysis of each isomer is important for the elucidation of reaction mechanism of sulfoxidation and their physical properties. The authors carried out the isomer analysis of PS by means of Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) method with the NMR shift reagent, Eu (dpm).
Many ions like salt water can conduct electricity when its dissolves in water, many ionic solutions need two or more ions that are connected by an electrical attraction. The ions are that positively charge is called cations and negatively charge is called anion. the water solution includes table salt which is sodium which is Na and chloride which is Cl, and water that is a very small V shaped molecule and the chemical formula is H2O. Then the atoms in this solution consist of a positive
Whereas toward strong base is beaker 10 which contain 50mL of 0.1M acetic acid and 10g of sodium acetate. Two important characteristics of a buffer solution are its pH and its buffer capacity. The buffer capacity is the amount of acid or base that can be absorbed by the buffer solution without a significant change in pH. The larger the buffer capacity, the greater the amount of acid and base must be added in order to produce a specific change in pH. The buffer capacity depends on the concentration of the weak acid and its conjugate base present.
The effect of pH on the adsorption of chromium (VI) is attributed to interaction between the ions in solution and complex formed at the adsorbent surface. The fact is that as the pH is varying chromium (VI) forms different species in aqueous solutions. The study was carried out under optimum conditions of extraction viz., chromium ion concentration: 50mg/lit, agitation time: 70min, adsorbent dose: 3.5g/lit, and a temperature of 30±1oC.The effect of pH on the percentage removal of chromium is studied between the pH range from 1 to 10 and the results are presented in