Moreover rural areas became urban and industrialized following advances in agriculture, industry and shipping . British economy has been dominate by agriculture system for the centuries . At 18th century new farming systems was created that produced larger quantities for example food that can feed larger population. Great political and economic give many advantages to the British in 19th century. Despite the phenomenon of urban and industrial ,agriculture remain as the main source as supporting and supporter in industry.
Followed by new crops and techniques, increases in output and land improvement, but also urban growth, agriculture became much more productive. Institutions such as enclosures and large farms are said to have increased productivity by encouraging farmers to adopt those new crops and techniques. However, there is little direct evidence for the actual impact of changes in land tenure on agricultural productivity. Indeed, the consequences of the enclosure movement on agricultural productivity has been a deeply debated topic in English economic history. The Bing-Bang was a trigger for the agricultural revolution.
Development economics allows one to see how money has an even greater influence in impoverished people’s decision of whether to migrate or not. The rural-urban migration theory states that in developing countries, such as China, a large portion of economic development comes from reallocating labor in the agriculture sector and rural areas to the industrial sector and urban areas (Todaro 338) This requires many people who were living in the rural areas of a country to move to the urbanized cities for work. The promise of higher wages lures them, with the idea that they’ll be able to provide more to their families. An example of this is emulated in Michelle Loyalka’s “ Teenage Beauty Queens “ in the collection Eating Bitterness, as many young girls who lived in rural China take on vocational jobs because of the promise of making money. (Loyalka) A second economic theory that contributes to the large number people who lived in rural areas migrating to the cities is the idea of Urban Bias.
However gentrification promotes job growth in both the renewal of these area’s as well as possible job employment in the secondary and tertiary sectors after gentrification has occurred (Davies, 1981). There is also possibility of economic growth within the business sectors as gentrification will allow for businesses to grow (Davies, 1981). An example of gentrification within Johannesburg is in Maboneng district, where during the 1990’s much of the middle-class moved to the northern suburbs. The middle class is now slowly moving back into the district and regenerating many of the warehouses and building which were once
In order to grow, businesses must have resources and opportunities. By acquiring Berendsen, Davis found the capabilities for growth. Berendsen provided much growth opportunity for Davis as they were already the market leader in their geographic area for providing textile services (Davis, 2008). Further, Davis also gained their experience with the local consumers, networks, and experiences (Davis, 2008). The financial resources came through selling additional shares to existing shareholders and from borrowing the remaining funds from the bank (Davis, 2008).
The Dutch occupation lead to numerous of flourished trade routes with neighboring countries like China and India. In 1830, Johannes van den Bosh made the Indies spend their way for exploitation of resources. Indonesia’s abundance of natural resources such as sugar, tee, palm, coffee and spices made it the hub of trade for Southeast Asia. The Dutch induced the culutuurstelsel and forced plantation in Indonesia which eventually made Java a Dutch plantation (Suratno par.8). The revenue and profit continually increase during the 19th century.
This accelerated due to immigration or the settling down of the semi-nomadic groups. "The concentration of people in large, urban communities at first was perhaps an unintended consequence of growing tribute demand..." (Pollock 120) This says that people started to settle and gather around the river or places where irrigation was possible, so that agriculture could be continued. This lead to rapid increase in population. This lead to formation of cities from villages due to surplus agricultural
The yield of crops helped by providing more food to sustain a population of people in one specific area. Agriculture could have been seen as a gateway for urbanizing many different areas because it provided people with jobs. Shifting to todays present urbanizations we see that we have pushed agricultural landscapes out toward city edges. This is because we have shifted focus toward tertiary landscapes where people can enjoy doing fun things or things to do in the city. The city of Caldwell has a variety of landscapes, although to me it seems to be revolved around hinterlands that are not far from the center of the city, but it is often a bit more of an agricultural setting than a developed and modern city.
As a result of these policies, many foreign workers, especially from China, India and Indonesia brought in to work on the plantation, construction, mining and administrative. After the independence, Malaysia continued to practice this policy as it helps in development and economic progress of a country as well it give more employment opportunities not only for local residents but to the outside world. 2.0 INTRODUCTION Based on Cambridge dictionary, term of migration is the process of moving or being moved from one place to another (Cambridge Dictionaries: migration, 2015). While, urban or urbanization is the process by which more and more people leave the countryside to live in cities (Cambridge Dictionaries: Urbanization, 2015). Therefore, when we talk about urban migration it is involved group of people or single people from rural or countryside migrated to urban area or cities.
NEP was aimed to promote growth with strong, harmonize and unity in a nation that consists of several ethnics and religious groups in achieving socio-economic goals. Thus, through NEP, government has put privatization as a strategy in increasing the property ownership of Bumiputera. Privatization, which generally known as a process of moving from government sector into private entity sector, has created economic opportunities for the poor and other disadvantaged groups to enable them to move out of poverty and to participate in the mainstream economic activities. Several initiatives under government such; absorbing poor rural household into modern sector which focusing in non-agricultural development; development of new land through replanting rubber tree to raise farmers’ productivity; and provide infrastructure including roads, electricity and water; and social services such as health, schools, food supplementary and squatters resettlement.. These were to ensure that the distribution of existing wealth can be expanded as a new source of capital that latter give positive influence to the