Central Nervous System Analysis

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The nervous system is the body's decision and communication center. The central nervous system (CNS) is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are made of nerves. The brain is made of three main parts which are the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem. The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections which called lobes. These…show more content…
For example, after being hit by a nail, a sensory receptor will respond to a stimulus by producing a receptor potential. Then, the sensory receptor propagates the nerve impulses along the axon of the sensory neuron to the axon terminal. The relay neurons send impulses to the area of the brain that allows conscious awareness about the reflex before it goes to the integrating center. According to Tortora G. J. (2016), the integrating center is a single synapse between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron. An integrating center is one or more regions of grey matter within the central nervous system. The integrating center also contains one or more interneurons that function as relaying nerve impulses to other interneurons as well as to motor…show more content…
An axon extends from the cell body and often gives rise to many smaller branches before ending at nerve terminals. The axon is a fiber rather like a cable. The function is to carry electrochemical signals from the soma to other neurons. The axon is surrounded by a series of short, cylindrical myelin sheaths along its length. If the sheaths are damaged, the axon cannot transmit signals properly. This can lead to multiple sclerosis.
Next, dendrites are finger like receptors where the signals come from other neurons. Although the dendrites do not touch other neurons, they come close, leaving tiny gaps which called as synapses to separate them. An important function of the dendrite is the integration of various input signals.
Synapses are the gaps between the axons of transmitting neurons and the dendrites of receptor neurons. Electrochemical signals are carried across the gap by neurotransmitter molecules. These end up at the receptor proteins located in the ends of dendrites.
There are various neurotransmitter chemicals. Each serves a different type of neuron. Among them are serotonin, acetylcholine, and dopamine. It is associated with the central nervous system, blood platelets, and the gastrointestinal

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