Reinforced concrete is stronger than most of the other materials used in the construction industry. Apart from providing great strength it also has good tension capabilities. The materials have a longer lifespan and the maintenance cost is also lesser. For constructing larger structures such as dams reinforced concrete is very economical and can save lots of money for the builder. They can take any shape and is used in making structural components before casting.
These specific qualities are based upon its material make up and the interactions with the surrounding environment experienced by it. The properties break down into the physical strength and interactions that ECC undergoes, along with the chemical reactions and characteristics that allow the process of self-healing to occur. These physical properties include remarkable tensile strength and ductility, which allow for one of the most important interactions in the concrete itself: micro-cracking. The process of micro cracking significantly increases the tensile strength and remains within a very low degree of permeability. This low permeability reduces the effects associated with the absorption of chemicals which include the corrosion of steel reinforcement and erosion of the concrete itself.
Reinforced concrete may be the most important material available for construction. It is used in one form or another for almost all structures, great or small—buildings, bridges, pavements, dams, retaining walls, tunnels, drainage and irrigation facilities, tanks, and so on. Corbel is one of them element contains reinforced concrete used as economical; Corbel is a short structural element that cantilevers out from the column and the wall to support load generally, the corbel is cast monolithically with column or wall. Corbel projecting from the of reinforced columns is used extensively in precast concrete construction to support primary beams. A corbel is keyed into the structure.
When the pulse is induced into the concrete from a transducer, it undergoes multiple reflections at the boundaries of the different material phases within the concrete. A complex system of stress waves is developed which includes longitudinal (compressional), shear transverse) and surface (Rayleigh) waves. ® The receiving transducer detects the onset of the longitudinal waves, which is the fastest. Because the velocity of the pulses is almost independent of the geometry of the material through which they pass and depends only on its elastic properties, pulse velocity method is a convenient technique for investigating structural concrete. The underlying principle of assessing the quality of concrete is that comparatively higher velocities are obtained when the quality of concrete in terms of density, homogeneity and uniformity is good.
Factors affecting heat transfer enhancement of shell-and-tube heat exchangers Every exchangers is subject to mechanical stress from a variety of sources in addition to temperature gradients. There are mechanical stresses which result from the construction techniques used on the exchangers, example, tube and tube sheet stresses resulting from rolling in the
Mortar is a workable paste of cement, sand and water which is used to fill the irregular gaps, voids and bind the masonry units together. The cement mortar is also used in plastering of wall structures in order to give a smooth finish and protect the structure. But cement plaster possesses low strength, absorbs more water and large number of pollutants from the atmosphere and deteriorate the structure which leads to surface cracks and damping. Thus in order to suppress these defects, cement plaster is added with nanomaterial and pozzolanic materials. The aim of this thesis is at making and studying the different strength properties of cement mortar and modified mortar.
Recently, natural clay minerals (e.g. bentonite) [24, 25] and zeolite [21, 26] have been widely used as adsorbents for adsorption of ionic and molecular species from various water streams. Utilization of clays has many advantages such as less environmental issues, low cost and abundance in most soils. Bentonite is one of the main clay mineral that mostly composed of montmorillonite and aluminosilicate . Bentonites are very valuable because of their sorptive properties, which originate from their high surface area and their tendency to adsorb water in the interlayer sites .
Advantages Of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete 1. The application GFRC is a material that has multiple functions which can be used in the construction of trim, columns, balustrades, ornaments, pedaments, sills, copings, window and door surrounds, site furnishings and the others more. This is because GFRC is a lightweight product and easy to handle compared to the other normal concrete product.GFRC design is also easy to be formed, compared with the cast stone which is cast stone need to be vibrated in order to eliminate or reduce air and water that contained in the cast stone concrete. 2. The strength of GFRC GFRC is a product that has high tensile strength, which are indispensable in the construction of a stronger building.
For many years, it has been utilized as an economical construction material in one form or another. A large part of its worldwide appeal is that the basic constituent materials cement, sand, aggregate, water and reinforcing bars are widely available and that it is possible to construct a structure using local sources of labour and materials. 1.2.2 Steel