An error that occurred was the concentration of the solvent. Since there were two different dilution of the solution, the amount of water used was different, causing a different concentration and producing a different result. The amount of water used should be measured beforehand to reduce the random error and increase the precision of the results. A systematic error may have been the Bunsen burner being on safety flame instead of a blue flame. The long exposure to the low heat evaporated the water, thus increasing the concentration of Sodium Thiosulfate.
The degree of dissociation, α, can be calculated using the following formula, assuming that α≪1: α=([H^+])/C_a =〖10〗^(-pH)/C_a where [H+] is hydrogen-ion concentration and Ca is concentration of acid (Lower, 2016). Percent ionization is simply the degree of dissociation multiplied by 100% to elicit a percentage of ions dissociated. The degree of dissociation for an acid will increase as the pH decreases and [H+] concentration increases because the original molecule is dissociating into H+ ions and acid anions. Ostwald's dilution law is a relationship between the dissociation constant and the degree of dissociation of a weak electrolyte (Stock, 1997). Ostwald suggested that the law of mass action could be applied to systems of dynamic equilibrium between ions and unionized molecules of the electrolyte in solution.
This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone.
Sodium Bicarbonate mixed with Hydrochloric acid. The chemical reaction observed showed that there was fizzing and bubbling, this is evidence that a new gas was being produced. This new gas, CO2 was generated from the reaction. After the fizzing stopped a liquid was leftover leading me to conclude the liquid leftover leading me to conclude the liquid leftover was the NaCl and H2O 4. You found a sample of a solution that has a faint odor resembling vinegar (an acid).
The products will always be water and a salt. The balanced reaction equation for this experiment is the reaction below (Enthalpy of neutralization, 2018). 〖NaOH〗_((aq))+〖HCl〗_((aq))→〖NaCl〗_((aq))+H_2 O_((l)) In aqueous solutions the substances that are involved will experience dissociation, which changes the ionization state of the substances (Neutralization, 2018). When an acid is dissolved in water the covalent bond between the electronegative atom
Balanced Chemical Equation: Cu(s) + 4HNO3(aq) —> Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2NO2 (g) + 2H2O (l) Reaction 2: when sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is added to copper (II) nitrate (Cu(NO3)2), a double displacement reaction will occur. Copper and sodium will displace each other to create copper (II) hydroxide and sodium nitrate. Balanced Chemical Equation: Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) —> CuOH2 (s) + 2NaNO3 (aq) Reaction 3: When copper (II) hydroxide is heated, a decomposition reaction will occur. The reaction will decompose forming two compounds, Copper (II) oxide, and water. Balanced Chemical Equation: Cu(OH)2 (s) + Heat —> CuO (s)
This process destroys about 25% of the Vitamin C prior to the substance becoming frozen.  Methodology Chemical Reaction There is a method to indicate the amount of Vitamin C in a solution by a redox titration reaction using iodine. The iodine would be added during the titration, the ascorbic acid would become oxidised to dehydroascorbic acid (a colourless chemical), and the iodine would be reduced to iodide ions.  This is because ascorbic acid loses the hydrogen atoms (2) to the iodine and dehydroascorbic acid is formed.  The acid itself is a powerful anti-oxidant and a reducing agent that is capable of donating one to two electrons in redox reactions.
The thermometer showed that in Part II, Beaker 1 with greenhouse gasses warmed slower than Beaker 2. Hence, Beaker 1 also cooled slower than Beaker 2. Comparing results from Part I and Part II demonstrates how Beaker 1 cooled faster in Part II when it contained GHG than in Part I. Additional outlier which could be related to the results is wobble of the beakers which occurred at some point while Part II was in realization. This outlier may had an impact in a way that it caused the temperature to drop. Outlier has a negative effect on the data and it generates fall out of the general
It therefore shows us that when temperature rises, the crystal forms will change as they are affected by changes in temperature. This will then result in an expansion in the volume of the crystal when the temperature rises. As mentioned, at the transition point of 980K, the structure will transform from a α-model to the β-model and become a hexagonal unit cell. The various diagrams below portray this, which reflects the changes that the crystal form undergoes at 980K-transition
A double-replacement reaction also involves the transfer of anions. However, unlike a single-replacement reaction, a double-replacement reaction has two anions being intrechanged. An example of this type of reaction would be the combination of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to form water and sodium chloride: HCl + NaOH --> H2O +
It shows how heat travels from the inner core to the other layers of the Earth. When heat reaches the layers it changes their densities. When the density changed it made the particles rise to the top since it became less dense like the particles in the asthenosphere. Eventually they would become more dense since they were away from the heat source which would make the particles sink to the bottom and start the whole process start over again. After doing the Density Reading it showed us that when atoms or particles get heated they spread apart which make them less dense.
Alka-Seltzer is a medical drug that works as a pain reliever and an antacid. The pain reliever used is aspirin and the antacid used is baking soda. When sodium bicarbonate dissolves in water it splits apart into sodium and bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonates reacts with hydrogen ions from citric acid to form carbon dioxide gas and water. This is how the bubbles are made.
Qualitative question: Was there any CuCl2 left? There was no CuCl2 left, so the reaction went to completion. When the NH4OH was added to the solution, it did not turn blue. When NH4OH is added to a solution with copper in it, the solution should turn a cobalt blue color. However, the solution created a gel that indicates that AlCl3 was in solution, and there was minimal color change (caused by the change in the way light passes through gel).
You wish to substitute the bromine in the following molecules with a nucleophile. Explain whether the given molecule would react by S_N 1 or S_N 2 mechanism and explain why. 1-methyl-1-bromo-cyclohexane: S_N 1 mechanism because after Br leaves (leaving group departure) then it is a tertiary carbocation which is favored more in this type of mechanism. 1-bromopropane: This would react by S_N 2 mechanism because it is a primary alkyl halide, which undergo this type of mechanism.