Running the reaction. The mixture in the 5-ml conical vial containing the tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and anthranilic acid was heated on an aluminum block to 140° C. Once the mixture started to boil the prepared mixture of isopentyl nitrite was added to the 5-ml conical vial through the top of the condenser using a pasture pipette. The solution continued to boil for 25 more minutes until a
Bromination is the process where an alkene is halogenated with bromine. The purpose of this experiment was bromination of stilbene to stilbene dibromide. The element bromine is toxic and requires maximum care when used. Bromine was generated in the reaction mixture by using a green method. Less hazardous reagents were used to do so. This can be seen by the chemical reaction 2HBr+H_2 O_2→〖Br〗_2+2H_2 O. Hydrogen peroxide is used to oxidize HBr to 〖Br〗_2. By adding hydrogen peroxide this can make working with bromine less dangerous. This experiment is a greener approach to the bromination process because ethanol was used as a solvent. Ethanol is nontoxic making the experiment less harmful.
A Sn2 reaction was conducted; this involved benzyl bromide, sodium hydroxide, an unknown compound and ethanol through reflux technique, mel-temp recordings, recrystallization, and analysis of TLC plates.
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst. It forms a complex with HBr and extracts it from the aqueous phase into the organic phase where the alkene is. This dehydrates the acid, making it more reactive so that the addition reaction is possible. Rapid stirring is required in order to maximize the surface area
After adding the acetic acid and hydrobromic acid to the solution, and heating and recrystallizing the solution, the product triphenylmethyl bromide was created and had a mass of 0.103 g. The theoretical yield was calculated by determining the limiting reagent in the reaction. The triphenylmethanol was the limiting reagent in the reaction. The total amount of mass from the triphenylmethanol was converted to moles by using the molar mass of the triphenylmethanol. The amount of moles was then converted into grams to determine the theoretical yield, 0.125 g. The percent yield was then calculated by dividing the actual yield by the theoretical yield and multiplying the result by 100%. The percent yield was 82.4%. The melting point of the product was observed to be 139.5 °C. The theoretical yield of the product is 152 °C (University of South Carolina Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry). The melting point percent difference was calculated by subtracting the theoretical melting point from the actual melting point, dividing the result by the theoretical melting point, and multiplying the result by 100%. The melting point difference was 8.22%. Example calculations are shown
The purpose of this lab experiment is to examine different types of chemical reactions such as Decomposition reaction, Synthesis reactions, Combustion reactions, and different Chemical equations. The experiments were conducted online using Late Nite Labs.
In the round-bottom flask (100 mL), we placed p-aminobenzoic acid (1.2 g) and ethanol (12 mL). We swirled the mixture until the solid dissolved completely. We used Pasteur pipet to add concentrated sulfuric acid (1.0 mL) to the flask. We added boiling stone and assembled the reflux. Then, we did reflux for 75 minutes. After reflux, we removed the reaction mixture from the apparatus and cooled it for several minutes. We transferred the mixture to the beaker that contained water (30 mL). We cooled the mixture to room temperature and added sodium carbonate to neutralize the mixture. We added sodium carbonate until the pH of the mixture was 8. After neutralize, we collected benzocaine by vacuum filtration. We used a Buchner funnel to collect benzocaine. We used three 10 ml of water to wash the product. After the product was dry, we weighed, calculate the percent yield and determined the melting point of the product.
This was proved by utilizing the IR spectrum to verify the C=O was not in the final product as it lacked the 1640 cm-1 peak. The melting point of 113-115 degrees C proved that the final product obtained was the E-Stilbene. The TLC plate proved that the E and the Z product was produced, show cased by the double intensity of the DCM spot to the final product’s spot, both which had an Rf of 0.92. The double intensity proved that both products were produced, but through heating and filtering, the Z-Stilbene was
A hot plate was placed under the ring stand. 50 mL of 3.0 M NaOH in a 250 mL beaker and a stir bar was placed in the beaker. The beaker with NaOH was placed on the hot plate and 3.75 grams of NaAlO2*5H2O was placed in the beaker. The temperature probe was placed in the beaker with the solution, not touching the bottom of the beaker. The solution was heated and stirred till the solution dissolved. While the solution dissolved, 50 mL of distilled water was added to a 150 mL beaker and heated on the hot plate. When the solution started to boil 2.65 grams of Na2SiO3*5H2O was added to the beaker with a stir bar and heated to a gentle boil. When both solutions began to boil, the sodium silicate solution was slowly added to the sodium aluminate. The solution was kept at 900C for 60 minutes and stirred with stir bar. After 60 minutes, the zeolite solution was cooled for 5 minutes and for the magnetized zeolite , 0.78 grams of FeCl3 and 0.39 grams of FeSO4*7H2O was added to the flask and stirred until the iron parts dissolved. The magnetized zeolite was then cooled for 5 minutes. For both zeolite and magnetized zeolites, the solutions were placed in two centrifuges with equal amounts of solution and placed in both tubes. The tubes were placed in the centrifuge for 10 minutes at 5000 rpm. The liquid in the tube after the centrifuge was poured into a 200 mL waste
Magnesium reacts with oxygen resulting in a bright white flame and produced magnesium oxide. After the combustion was completed, magnesium oxide was placed into the beaker containing water and the pH level of the solution was neutral. It could produce a basic solution if the oxide layer of the magnesium ribbon was cleaned completely, to ensure that it does not hinder the reaction between magnesium and
The purpose of this experiment is to observe and compare synthesis, decomposition, single displacement and double displacement reactions and the physical and chemical reactions that occur as a result.
In this laboratory experiment, 3.030 g of Isopentyl Acetate was synthesized and formed by the esterification of acetic acid with Isopentyl Alcohol. 1.0 mL of Sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst in the reaction. The excess Isopentyl Acetate was used to shift the reaction to the right for esterification to occur. During the extraction, the excess of acetic acid and Isopentyl alcohol was extracted with sodium bicarbonate, and further purification of the Isopentyl acetate was done after through drying with anhydrous sodium sulfate and through simple distillation. The percent yield of the Isopentyl Acetate was 46.6 percent with a theoretical yield of 6.502g. In this laboratory experiment the acetic acid was in excess and the Isopentyl Alcohol was the limiting reagent, which ultimately the reaction depended upon on the
The synthesis was done following procedure from . Rose Bengal Na+ salt (915 mg, 0.90 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (2ml) and DIPEA (0.312 ml, 1.80 mmol), HATU (308 mg, 0.81 mmol) were added. After activation for 15 min, the mixture was added to O-Bis-(aminoethyl)ethylene glycol trityl resin (309 mg, 0.31 mmol) preswollen in DMF for 2 hours. The coupling reaction wrapped in aluminum foil was allowed to proceed overnight on a nitrogen bubbler apparatus. The resulting red-burgundy coloured resin was filtered and washed well with DMF. The resin was treated with 20% piperidine in DMF to hydrolyze any unwanted acylation on the phenolic hydroxyl groups. The resin
The rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid at room temperature was significantly slow. This process consumed a critical amount of time in lab. In order to synthesize magnesium chloride a sample of 0.254 ±0.001g of magnesium ribbon that was cut into smaller pieces was placed in a solution of hydrochloric acid that was labeled as being 6M. Unfortunately the HCl depleted and excess magnesium remained in solution after a pH test confirmed that all the HCl had been consumed in the reaction. Particles of magnesium were removed from the solution and placed into a 250mL beaker of known mass. The beaker was then weighed and the difference in weight was calculated. This value of magnesium remained was subtracted from the original amount of magnesium to calculate how much magnesium remained in solution. The solution of aqueous magnesium chloride was then heated to evaporate the remaining water and then weighed on a scale. Ultimately the percent error of 41.6% indicates that many sources of error through this process. One major source of error is that magnesium chloride is a hexahydrate, and water moisture from the air may have evaporated into the compound before weighing. Another source of error is that water droplets condensing on the side of the beaker added mass that was assumed to be only the synthesized compound. The two purity tests that were conducted, pH and flame tests, indicated that no basic or acidic compounds were
* To the RB, 2 ml of acetic acid was added and then by attaching a condenser the entire reaction was put on refluxing at 70 degrees Celsius in an oil bath.