Feminism is defined as the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes. Chosen as 2017’s “Word of the Year” by Merriam-Webster, feminism is a topic that has sparked many debates and discussions. Women, in particular, have been fighting for equality for centuries. Until recently, women were viewed as men’s property and were denied certain rights and freedoms. Feminists around the world turned to literature to advance their perspectives.
Its opponents have even suggested that feminist rhetoric condemns the opposite sex to the extent of gender antagonism (Young). In light of both the altruistic progressivism and the criticized status surrounding the contemporary women’s movement, the progress made through centuries of perseverance overall suggests that the movement intends to better and help the status of women in society. Now a movement based around securing the franchise of women, contemporary feminism initially spawned to uphold the rights of women before they were legally acknowledged. The spirit of the movement established itself at this initial point, a “gathering devoted to women’s rights” (“The Women 's Rights Movement, 1848-1920”). As such, in commitment to its original form, the contemporary movement reflects
This paper investigates the feminist aspects in Caryl Churchill 's Top Girls. It then tries to go beyond feminism to explore how it is deconstructed from a feminist point of view. After an analytical discussion, the results show that surrealist characters are intended to emphasize women 's struggling across generations and because they have something in common with Marlene, the play 's protagonist. The female employees in the agency including Marlene are intended to show women 's dehumanization when they have power and wealth over men and women from the lower class. Finally, the study asserted that Churchill deconstructs feminism in certain parts of the play in order to criticize Thatcher Policies which comfort the bourgeois class on the
Whether or not third wave feminism will remain a single movement or it will have different branches with their own ideologies and goals, it has not been well-defined as yet (Wood, 2010: 78). Feminist theory took for granted that there is some existing identity understood through the category of women, who initiate feminist interests and goals (Butler, 2010: 2). This particular wave of feminism places great emphasis on agency, and this has an impact on an individual’s
As long as feminism considers women a well-defined category that's universally identifiable... it undermines its ability to represent women. Then reader approaches the theory of Sex versus Gender Feminism often splits the unity of women when it splits the idea of sex and gender. This distinction was first used to undermine the idea of "biology-as-destiny." But, if this distinction is pushed too far, then the idea of gender becomes disconnected from the body - and one never will understand the process of how sex and gender are socially assigned. Maybe sex is a gendered
It is about the suffrage of women. The second wave was dominant in the 1960s and 1970s. It was mainly concerned with women’s liberation and advocated for their social and legal rights. the third wave started in 1990s and is still in practice. These feminist movements gave birth to feminist theory.
In her work Dreams of Trespass: Tales of a Harem Girlhood Mernissi proves that, as Rhouni claims, ‘’Foregrounding women’s agency, the novel is an attempt to decenter feminism from its Western location where it supposedly has originated, locating it in Moroccan culture and even within the confines of the harem” . Furthermore, patriarchy is another hindrance that women have to deal with in the Moroccan context and elsewhere; in the sense that, women have been victims of male expedient and opportunistic interpretation of the religious texts that give legitimacy to their oppression and suppression.
Some conflict appeared between women's desires and the dominant values of feminine motherhood, which made women declare their protest and led to a change in attitude towards motherhood. The crisis begins when feminist women begin call on women(mothers) to fight against motherhood and suggesting other alternatives. The women revolt against motherhood in family portrayed in fiction by dissatisfied protagonists with the existing ideals of motherhood, this revolt is not only personal attack on the mothers as it‘s against the institution of the family. Adrienne Rich, in her book Of Woman Born indicates to this revolt when she says "not the fear of one's mother or of motherhood, but of becoming one's mother" (1976, 235). In Alice Walker`s novel Meridian, It seems that Meridian is struggling to be free of motherhood, she hates her mother who is a victim of motherhood, she does not want to be the same like her mother.
NOW activists used/use both traditional and nontraditional means to push for social change. 3 WAVES OF FEMINISM: Feminism had gone through 3 waves: 1st Wave feminism: In the 1830’s, the main issues were abolition of slavery and women’s rights. 1848 - Women’s Rights Convention held in Seneca Falls, New York. 1920 - the 19th Amendment guaranteed women the right to vote. 2nd Wave feminism: In the years, 1966 - 1979, the was the heightened feminist consciousness.
Reflecting on Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own, Showalter faces the similar issue of women’s exclusion from the academy. Charting a long history of literary women, she drives attention to undervalued nineteenth-century writers such as Sarah Grand, George Egerton. Rather than defining a ‘universal’ woman’s text, Showalter preferred to identify a female ‘subculture’ which created those texts. She argues that, with the reemergence of a Women’s Liberation Movement in England and in America around 1960s and 1970s, scholarship generated by contemporary feminist movement has led to an increase in sensitivity to the problems of sexual bias or projection in literary history. And one of the most significant contributions has been the unearthing and reinterpretation of “lost” works by women writers, and the documentation of their lives and careers.