(Scruton, 2001, p.80) People have free will to subject themselves to objective, ethical, moral law. Kant developed his concept of autonomy in which rational individuals able to overcome heteronomous factors, especially include one’s own desire and interest. These elements may trigger conflict with reason and rationality of oneself. (Scruton, 2001, p.80) In this case, reason become a essential factor to how people act morally. Reason has the ability to govern freedom, and therefore it also determines behaviors.
Emerson says freedom of speech is justified when it is used as: a way to attain the truth (taken from Mill), a way to assure individual self-fulfillment (taken from Redish), a way to secure participation by people in society (taken from Meicklejohn), and a way to balance stability and change in society (Lecture 8.2). Emerson combines the main components of each argument and forms it into something that protects freedom of speech from multiple points. Mill’s component is used as a means to protect and uphold truth, and he adds his own component at the end to balance out society as it changes with time. He uses Meicklejohn’s component to protect participation in voicing political goals/discussions and involvement, while remembering to include the right to expression, autonomy, and growth, taken from
The extent of fairness in this method is however, rather questionable and the same can be said for Rawls’s overall understanding of fairness, especially when looking at practicalities, because Rawls’s theory is highly idealistic and his methodology allegedly universal. In this essay I will therefore take a political realist approach and critically assess the question whether Rawls’s connection between justice and fairness is applicable in practice and whether making this connection can be justified. I will argue that justice is a practical concept for which it is important that current societal factors are considered and in doing so I will first look at the practical aspects in applying Rawls’s theory and conclude that his association of justice cannot be justified when looking at the concept of fairness applied in a practical
It is associated with inner conviction and hope for the existence and reality of the Supreme Personality, which is related to the person, his life, his society. Therefore, faith is something personal, irrevocable, but something important public importance. Freedom of religion is another kind of category - it is a political opportunity and public 's faith to be realized in society. If I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, is important for me to be able to talk about it publicly, write books and to distribute them and to win followers of these my convictions. An
Different from consequentialism, people who tend to have the mind set of a deontologist believe that you should do your ethical duty, regardless of the outcome. Immanuel Kant designed ‘The Categorical Imperative’ theory which was associated with the fact that it was commanding us to practice our morals and desires in a specific way which was exercised through two rules. Kamm (2000) claims that these components were to ‘(1) treat persons as ends in themselves and (2) do not treat them as mere means’. Kamm is basically suggesting that we seek happiness of others, as that is morally right, however fulfill capacities of one’s own intellect. From following both of these we arrive at an imperative and it is categorical.
This is the popular refinement between the positive and negative thoughts of freedom. The positive thought is one where an individual has freedom to go about as an ethical operator. The negative thought is the place the freedom an individual has is characterized by being shielded from obstruction from others. In Rousseau 's view the positive origination of freedom is the main good one. Political society ought to be about the safeguarding and advancement of this freedom.
It asserts that actions are determined as immoral or moral based on how society perceives and accepts those actions, which causes tolerance of all actions to be considered moral and accepted by society. In addition, it allows for tolerance of genocide and nuclear war as long as the culture considers these actions as morally acceptable. Ethical relativism entails the inter-cultural tolerance. Subjective Ethical Relativism (Subjectivism), is where right and wrong get their meaning from the individual only. As many students sometimes maintain, "Morality is in the eye of the beholder."
Free will was not created for that sole purpose but Nietzsche's belief is true. Free will allows people to make their own moral decisions based on what they believe. Free will also creates a standard and moral responsibility for people to conform to. Free will causes people to hold themselves and others more responsible for their actions, as they agree that harsh consequences should follow if moral rules are broken. Free will encourages people to take responsibility for their moral actions and the potential consequences encourage more positive moral
Contrasting to the point above, the case of Charlie Hebdo is also a closely tied in example in regards to one’s right to freedom of speech. Many saw it as a fight towards the ability to speak unreservedly and without the fear of repercussions. People are always quick to point to human rights at the mention of free speech. However, if said freedom puts civilisation into disarray and destruction, where would the place for progress be to begin with? The best way to protect free speech is to prevent it from being misused and becoming a drawback of society.
Therefore, evaluation must consider both sides, functioning and capability. Critical Analysis Amartya Sens ' Development as Capability expansion was worth a read. Sens ' arguments are considerable when he talks about the freedom and moral grounds on which development has to be considered. His focus on every aspect of social periphery, for example gender, and should be considered as important as any utilitarian matter. The paper inculcates some very practical ideas like; it is not just wealth or resources that determine the well being but the capability and doing of what they want to.