10th grade Advanced Placement World History II Summer Reading Assignment Since the last ice age, civilizations have progressed at different rates. Some developed literate societies with metal tools and innovative farming societies, while others developed illiterate hunting-gathering societies with improvised rock tools. But why has society advanced at such unlike proportions? This question, also known as Yali’s question, is the main focus of the book Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond. The book attempts to answer this question by comparing the historical developments of different continents over the last 13,000 years.
In the book Guns,Germs and Steels, Jared Diamond illuminates how and why the human societies of different continents followed widely divergent pathways of development over the past 13,000 years. However, Mcneil thinks, though Diamond makes a good case for the critical importance of continental differences in the wild plant and animal species available as starting material for domestication, he puts too much effort to reduce history to the level of biological science. In my perspective, Diamond frames his book around “Yali’s questions”, and his answers to those questions are simple in principle but complex in detail. One of the most important viewpoints of Jared Diamond is that he proposes, before culture was advanced enough, small differences
Well, this book, called Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies by Jared Diamond, is an informational book talking about the ascending of civilizations in detail. In other words, what is distinctive about this publication is that it explains why civilization has not contrariwise, i.e. why did the Spanish conquer the Inca Empire instead of the Incas conquering Spain? It explains these problems by using effects the environment have, etc. and why it isn 't been vice versa.
Chapter 1: Diamond’s first attempt at answering Yali’s question begins with another question: did some continents have a head start in civilization over others? The beginning of civilization is traced back to the ape species in Africa about 7 million years ago. They divergence from apes to humans took place from then to the end of the last Ice Age 13,000 years ago. This could have set Africa “ahead” of the other continents. Another major component is when the humans would develop germs, guns, and steel.
In Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond opposed the idea that European civilizations have advanced further than their contemporaries in other continents because their inhabitants were intellectually superior. Instead, he supported the notion that some civilizations developed at a quicker pace than others because of the environmental differences that were present in the continents where they resided. Factors such as wildlife, climate, and the types of resources presented in an area have dramatically affected the growth and development of hunter-gatherer groups into villages, and eventually, nations. In places where the environmental conditions were not ideal, the inhabitants were not able to advance as far as other civilizations. Diamond disproved
He first broached Yali’s question in a chapter of his book, The Third Chimpanzee, but he felt he needed to be discussed in more depth. He then applied this question on a broader scope, “why did wealth and power become distributed as they now are, rather than in some other way?” Diamond poses several questions throughout this book and then gives detailed accounts on why history took the course it
The influx of knowledge, did not just better the individual but also the society as a whole. Some cultures lack this growth because they are ruled or dictated by religion or by religion center governments. This hindrance is caused by many being stuck in their old actions and belief. It is not till they are contamination by other cultures do they gain growth and
The fact that a lot of civilizations do not apply to the list means that the list must be slightly biased. This bias can alter the way we see the history of human civilization because if a civilization can’t apply to every point in the Redman-Childe list, they may not consider it to be a civilization, therefore making it less important. We could be missing incredibly important civilizations that affected other civilizations in our historical records because of this. The whole story of how other “more important” civilizations came to be may be removed if we forget about the ones they came from because they do not exactly follow the Redman-Childe
When analyzing Native American societies, one looks at how Natives changed because of colonization. This focus on change has led many historians to forget about continuity and how Natives kept their cultural traditions alive. Instead of looking at change in Native societies, historians have started to look at how Natives adapted to the changing world around their society. One important aspect to understand when analyzing Native society through change and continuity is that societies are not stagnant and are constantly evolving. The story of the rise in colonization and decline of Native control over land is not a story of assimilation, but of adaption.
Archbishop James Ussher and John Lightfoot were the two men who came up with the 6,000 year timeframe based on compilations they had from Genesis genealogies. It was not until the 18th century that scientists of different professions came to a conclusion that the earth was millions of years old. Millions of years was a starch contrast to the 6,000 year conclusion that Ussher and Lightfoot had in dealing with earth’s creation. Feeling like something should be done to uphold Ussher and Lightfoot’s findings, a British preacher and biologist named Philip Gosse proposed a solution between the two conflicting time tables. Gosse proposed the “appearance of age theory” which explained that although the earth appeared to be millions of years old, it was actually only 6,000 years old.