The guinea worm is the largest of the parasites that can affect humans. The adult female can carry around 3 million eggs and can get up to 600-800 mm in length, as well as 2 mm in diameter. It can cause the parasitic infection, dracunculiasis, which is most commonly known as Guinea worm disease. The parasite moves through the subcutaneous tissues of the infected victim and up to the surface of the skin. About a year after initial infection, the guinea worm produces a blister on the skin, typically the feet, and then
Toxocariasis is a zoonosis caused by roundworms of cats and dogs, with Toxocara canis as its main representative (Fan et al., 2004). This zoonotic roundworm is not only present worldwide in its definitive host; it also occurs in different paratenic hosts which consist of other animals, including humans (Strube et al., 2013). Unembryonated eggs are passed by infected dogs into the environment during defecation. Optimal temperatures and humidity allow these eggs to embryonate, making them infectious to both final and paratenic hosts (Fan et al., 2004). Transmission to humans normally occurs through accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs from contaminated soil (Khademvatan et al., 2013), from food contaminated with eggs or from ingestion of
Since whipworms can survive very well in the environment, it is important to have good environmental hygiene to control the spreading of parasites. This includes keeping kennels, crates, and cages disinfected. Also, keeping yards and dog runs where animals urinate and defecate, cleaned up regularly can help to prevent spreading these parasites further. ("Whipworms in Dogs | Causes and Prevention," n.d.)
All except the dwarf tapeworm are acquired by eating raw or undercooked meat from the meat source that the name indicates (fish, beef or pork). You get dwarf tapeworm by eating or ingesting the Hymenolepis eggs on or in any food contaminated by stool from another infected person. All except pork tapeworm infections never travel outside of the bowel in humans. People who ingest human stool or feces contaminated with pork tapeworm eggs can develop a disease called cysticercosis. Infected persons have multiple cysts in many parts of
Toxocariasis, also known as the dog and cat roundworm is a zoonotic disease which means it is spread through animal to human without having to have direct contact. Toxocariasis is a part of the ascaridida family, the genus toxocara, the nematode class, the canis or cati species, and the phylum nemathelminths. The first incidence of the disease toxocariasis was reported in 1824 the 18th century technology did not allow for such research in toxocariasis. In 1908 an English scientist discovered that seventeen out of twenty-four dogs were infected with the parasite. Toxocariasis is a worldwide disease, but most cases are found in the United States, Western Europe and Australia.
“Panleukopenia” comes from low white blood concentration that all affected animals show. Affected cats loose much water, experience severe dehydration. The virus moves from place to another on contaminated objects and substances. Hands, shoes, bearing saliva or pieces of stool are among the most common means of transfer.
Merchant boats with stow-away rats infested with fleas carried the illness from port to port. When the boats docked, the fleas bit the townspeople on shore giving them the sickness. These people would then in turn spread the sickness to their friends and family. Soon, whole villages were infected. After several years, the plague came to an end, but the results of this disease left many farms, villages, and cities barren and empty.
Trichinosis is an infection caused by the roundworm Trichinella spiralis or another Trichinella roundworm. These worm's usually enter the body when the host consumes raw or undercooked meat. This particular infection is not necessarily contagious, unless the infected muscle tissue is eaten. In humans, the larvae are ingested (taken in) and are released from a cyst by stomach acid which then grow and develop into female and male worm's. After the male and female mate, the larvae are then released into the bloodstream and distribute to the skeletal muscle cells.
Lungworms cycle starts when ingestion of infective larva. The infective larvae then lays the intestinal wall where then the larva migrates into the bloodstream. Then infected larvae reside in the lungs until the development into an adult lungworm. After that the adult lungworm eggs hatch and are coughed up and go back into the stomach where the host releases it back into the environment via feces. It can cause major economic loss if an outbreak occurs, many livestocks can get infected and possibly die.
Worm therapy is widely used because it can reestablish immune system balance. The ability of worms to protect various diseases, such as colitis, encephalitis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and diabetes mellitus has been studied experimentally [20,21]. Many studies have shown that living nematodes have become an alternative therapy [22-24], but this method has disadvantages, because patients must be infected by living nematodes into the body [24-26], thus, a large number of the parasites to implement these therapies. The specific mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of gastrointestinal nematodes are not clearly understood. It has been studied about the inflammatory response is caused by a parasite and the consequences resulting from the nematode
This reckless type of hunting leaves hunters susceptible to injuries, which increase the chances of an infected animal’s blood entering a human’s blood stream. This would allow more chances for the disease to mutate as more humans become exposed to infected animal