After the American Civil War, slavery was abolished, unleashing a vast amount of Blacks into American society. Following the Civil War was the Reconstruction Era which empowered Blacks. For example, the 14th and 15th amendment were passed which made blacks citizens with the same rights as any other slavery and gave blacks voting rights. Southern blacks begin taking control over the states as voting privilege allowed blacks to be voted into local government position and even a senator position in the U.S Congress. However, with the end of Reconstruction by the Compromise of 1877 which removed all federal troops in the south in exchange for Hayes withdrawal from the presidential election, Southern states made new constitutions to disenfranchised the blacks.
Although slavery had been outlawed by the Thirteenth Amendment, it continued in many southern states. In an effort to get around laws passed by Congress, southern states created black codes, which were discriminatory state laws which aimed to keep white supremacy in place. While the codes granted certain freedoms to African Americans, their primary purpose was to fulfill an important economic need in the postwar South. To maintain agricultural production, the South had relied on slaves to work the land. Black codes were restrictive laws designed to limit the freedom of African Americans and ensure their ties to the land.
Abraham Lincoln died for civil rights when slavery was abolished when he signed the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865, but still African-Americans were being discriminated and segregated form the whites. True equality was not shown until The Civil Rights Act of 1965 that desegregated schools, restaurants, and other locations in America was signed gave African-Americans a chance at true freedom and equality which is what America is supposed to mean. For 100 years the battle for civil rights was fought and came true, it took a nation to be divide to go to war with each other. It also started a huge movement in America in the 1960s that revolutionized a country and changed it forever. King believed in this change and was able to lead a movement and succeed with it.
At the start is was not the aim to a abolish slavery but join America as a nation, abolition came later. This was because of the military necessity, growing anti-slavery sentiment in the north and the self-emancipation of many African Americans. This is where they fled enslavement as Union troops and went through the South, five days after the bloody Union victory at Antietam in September 1862, Lincoln made it official that “slaves within any state, or designated part of a state in rebellion shall be then and thenceforward, and forever free” (Networks, 2015). Nearly 100 years after this the African Americans in the Southern states still inhabited as starkly unequal world of disenfranchisement, segregation and various forms of oppression, this included violence because of the colour of their skin. The “Jim Crow” this law barred African Americans from bathroom, classrooms, theatres and train cars.
The landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court in 1896, upheld public segregation based on the color of one’s skin, is known as Plessy v. Ferguson . The decision by the justices on the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of separate but equal facilities based on race . The practice of segregation based on race stayed in effect for over sixty years until it was overturned in 1954 by the Supreme Court decision in
Slavery in America, particularly in the Southern region, was heavily depended upon due to the high demand for labor. Historically, slaves were primarily blacks but race did not become an issue until 1650, when Virginia and Maryland claimed that infidel (non Christian) slaves could be enslaved for life. Following this claim, non-whites became a target for slavery. In 1739, a group of rebellious slaves paraded towards Georgia and Florida, and killed several whites at Stono, South Carolina. After these white killings, slave codes were implemented to end rebellion and restrict mobility.
Contemporary examples of social changes include “Black Lives Matter” a movement aimed at ending police brutality in the U.S. and the Arab Spring which was a series of protests that began in Tunisia and spread to the Middle East and North Africa resulting in the ousting of rulers in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen . Rosa Parks was a black seamstress born in 1913 who helped initiate the movement for civil rights in the United States by refusing to give up her seat to a white man . At the time in Alabama, daily life was governed by segregation laws, which
Segregation has plagued the U.S. since before the Civil War. Racism between blacks and whites has ended in horrible incidents to blacks done by whites. Racial segregation is primarily done in the south. The government seems to do nothing to stop it. The racial segregation has has to stop, the Declaration of Independence says, “all men are created equal” but in the south that does not apply.
Racism & The Great Migration In 1920s, racism was big in the south. Blacks weren’t allowed any of the rights whites had due to segregation and all the laws preventing them from being equal. The Great Migration affected the location of racism because when blacks moved north, racism followed. Blacks moved north to escape poverty caused by sharecropping and Jim Crow laws. When slavery was abolished, whites rented land to blacks to grow crops in return for a percentage of the crop.
At the same time the percentage of slaveries went up to 90 percent of black Africans. When they tried to calculate the amount of people in the country, they argued if the blacks should be counted, they weren’t count as a full human after all ( the law haven’t accept them as a full human yet). At the end of Civil War, northern union army had promised to free the slaves who fought against the southern army. But they never fulfilled their promise, and the land were returned to the white plantation owners. The blacks had no choice but to work for their former masters, they became farm laborers.
Some African-Americans played for primarily white professional teams in the 19th century but were driven out due to racism (Raceball, 21). In the late 19th century 90 percent of African-Americans lived in the South. Rampant poverty and segregation in the South made the idea of black dominated baseball inconceivable. However, black baseball potential would soon be realized with the Great Migration—a movement beginning in the early 20th century that led African-Americans out of the South to Northern cities (Raceball, 28). In 1910, African-American Andrew Foster formed the Chicago American Giants and other African-Americans started team too.
Summary of the article De-centering the South De-centering the South: America 's Nationwide White Supremacist Order After Reconstruction is an article written by Desmond S. King and Stephen G. N. Tuck. It explores the deplorable state of racism in the southern states of the USA during the late 19th century and early 20th century, and the efforts of one man to fight it. One of the most prominent African-American leaders of that period was a man called Thomas Fortune. Once a slave in the South, Fortune was too aware of America’s race problem. In 1879, he left the south and moved to New York where he became an editor of several African-American newspapers.
Costly discusses how Congress created the Freedman’s Bureau that tried to help to make sure former slaves were being treated and paid well by their employers. Costly also discusses the South Carolina Black Code and how it only applied to “persons of color”; the codes included labor contracts, civil rights, vagrancy, and other restrictions. Andrew Costly tells about the how the northern protesting the Black Codes because they felt as if
Some African American stared to leave the south and migrate to the west to Oklahoma, Arkansas and so on. Booker T. Washington’s was born into slavery; He was the president of Tuskegee Institute. Washington’s believed that racism and prejudice would end once blacks acquired useful vocational education, developmental trade and build agriculture. That would develop respect over. time.
Hayes promised to withdraw federal troops from the south in 1877, allowing formal Confederate officials and slave owners to return to power, thus ending reconstruction. Once the south had power again the sharecropping system kept blacks on the land owned by rich white farmers and this system became very popular. Blacks had very little economic power and had to fight for civil rights on their own because northern whites lost interest in