The concept of attachment in the doctrine was introduced by English psychoanalyst John Bowlby (John Bowlby, 1907-1990). Attachment refers to the specific relationship formed between mother and child and lasts throughout life, as a permanent psychological link established between two people (Holmes, 2004). Regarding this, it should be pointed out that Bowlby was not the first one that observed and defined the relationship between mother and child. A decade before him, psychoanalysis as a condition of normal child development sets the continuous and a close relationship with the child 's mother. According to the psychoanalytic concept of the relationship of the child with the mother based on the fact that the mother provides the satisfaction of the
Mary Ainsworth is known best for her elaboration work of John Bowlby and his attachment theory. She developed a procedure for the observation and assessing the quality of attachment in relationships between the child and a caregiver. The procedure was called the ‘Strange Situation’. In the experiment the child was observed playing for twenty minutes. Meanwhile the caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room.
Furthermore, Mahler’s separation-individuation periods, and Bowlby’s attachment phases share similar concepts, which appears to be critical period for development. In particular, child sense of self and changes occur with mother’s involvement as the child becomes less dependent, and practicing periods from both perspectives emphasize children exploration and his or her experience with splitting (e.g. frustration and gratification) and “trust vs mistrust” is evident (Goldstein, 1995). As a result, the child develops maturity with continual recourse for a much greater identity and ego functioning (Goldstein, 1995).
John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth collaborated to develop Attachment theory (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991 cited in Bretherton 1992). Bowlby a psychoanalyst was instrumental in identifying an understanding of the ‘concepts of mental health and mental ill-health’ (Bowlby, 1951 cited in Blakely & Dziadosz 2015, p. 283). In addition, Bowlby asserted that psychopathology could be attributed to the lack of a mother–child relationship, although dependent on duration and method (Bowlby, 1951 cited in Blakely & Dziadosz 2015). Bretherton (1992), maintains that Bowlby formulated Attachment theory presupposing based on ethological hypothesis that separation from the mother or primary carer, the attachment figure, in the formative years resulted in attachment
CHAPTER III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This study focused on the Attachment theory in which it is stated how attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space (Ainsworth, 1973; Bowlby, 1969). Attachment theory is a theory that’s connected to psychology, studied first by John Bowlby. It explains the relevance of getting attached to something in an individual’s development. It is observed among children relying on their parents for stability, and that there is an existing need for them due to such reliance.
Attachment theory is the joint work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Additionally, Bowlby revolutionized society’s perception of the mother-child relationship and its’ disruption through separation, deprivation, and bereavement (Bowlby, 1969/1982). Bowlby (1969) suggested that the caretaker’s sensitivity in responding to an infant’s distress signals play a significant role in the development of attachment patterns. The literature review portion of the present thesis will highlight foundational components of attachment, developmental outcomes for attachment classifications, and furthermore will examine the effect of multiple caregivers on attachment development in infants and
Attachment is when a child has an emotional positive bond with another person. Attachment optimistically encourages emotional, social or cognitive development. In addition, attachment is important when trying to cope with stressful situations and can help form stable relationships. Attachment reflects a dynamic interplay between an infant and their caregiver because we are pre-wired to respond through observation of our caregivers signals such as smiling, crying, clinging and reinforcement through development. Most importantly, the process of imprinting behavior proposes that infant‘s can distinguish between the parent and others.
Mary Ainsworth is best known for her elaboration on the work of John Bowlby and the Attachment Theory. Psychologist Mary Ainsworth created an assessment technique called the ‘Strange Situation Classification’ (SSC) to investigate how attachments might differ between children. The procedure ‘Strange Situation’ was conducted by observing the behaviour of a child in a series of eight episodes lasting approximately 3 minutes each. During the test, the child is brought into a room with their mother and the child is allowed to explore the room and play with the toys. Then a stranger enters the room and talks to the mother, Then the mother leaves the infant with the stranger for 3 minutes.
Theories, Key Concepts, Principles, and Assumptions Two theories that will be discussed in this paper is Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development and John Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment. Erikson’s theory is considered psychosocial, emphasizing the importance of social and cultural factors within a lifespan, from infancy to later adulthood. Erikson’s theory is broken down into eight consecutive age-defined stages. During each stage, a person experiences a psychosocial crisis that contributes to their personality development.
Psychology Assignment. Whilst the process of attachment in early life may appear straightforward, there is however, a number of theories that can explain how this can vary. The development and importance of attachment in early life is well portrayed in psychological theory and in psychological research. The definition of attachment according to Bowlby (1982) (Psychological Science by Michael Gazzaniga Page 366) is that "attachment is a strong, emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances".