Glaucon describes a situation in which both a perfectly just person and a perfectly unjust person possess a ring that could make them invisible, thereby allowing them to act without fear of consequences (38). He states that under these circumstances, both people would act to further their own self interest. The Ring of Gyges provides the reader with an almost modern and Hobbesian commentary on human nature, suggesting that when there is no punishment or outside force, all just virtues are cast out in favor of pursuing personal agendas. Justice, as described by the interlocutors, is not a natural tendency among individuals, but rather done as a result of fearing
He does agree with virtues and vices, and believes that people act virtuously for their own benefit. Would agreeing to the benefits of virtues and vices, still play a role in the idea that there could be an afterlife? People act in ways to benefit their own agenda. Participating in virtuous actions allows for someone to gain a pleasant spot in the afterlife. People do not act good without knowing that there is some kind of benefit in it for them.
In this day and age, a world free of pride, inequality and selfishness seems like the solution to nearly all the world’s problems. Perhaps, without pride the world could see an end to war. However, could the resulting lack of personality hinder mankind’s progress? This altruistic society demonstrated in Anthem provokes one to ponder the true meaning and merits of a measure of personal pride, though any degree of an ego is generally frowned upon in today’s society. Through the actions of Prometheus in Ayn Rand’s novelette, Anthem and through the understanding the speech, “The Soul of an Individualist” from another Ayn Rand novel, Fountainhead, one can see that Prometheus’ actions show egotistical traits within him and consequently his self-preserving
He says what we don't think about is that a lot of our decisions we have made in hopes of the pleasure we were looking for only caused us pain in the end. I agree with Epicurus’ teachings on desire and happiness. In today’s society people make decisions based on unnecessary desires in an attempt to find happiness. You could even go as far as to say that this is the root of society’s problems. Today, money equals happiness.
He states that we should strive self-alteration since it is our human nature to not stagnate but to progress. Otherwise we would betray the dynamic intrinsic of life and our own human nature. Other transhumanists use similar arguments to deduce that there is a value in progressing and enhancing that we are not supposed to question. Bioconservatives, on the other hand, have a different definition of human nature. According to Francis Fukuyama, a well-known bioconservative, human nature can be defined by "the sum of the behavior and characteristics that are typical of the human species, arising from genetic rather than environmental factors."
This author agrees that torture should be used because in war we have dropped bombs on innocent people that have either killed or left children, woman, and good men in critical condition, which is close to being torture. In the texts he says," There is no escaping the fact that whenever we drop bombs, we drop them with knowledge that some number of children will be blinded, disemboweled, paralyzed, orphaned, and killed by them". C. Fried and was against torture, he explains that Washington said to treat the captured in battle with humanity so they won't have a reason to complain that we were hurting people like those in the British army. He is stating that torture should be allowed with rules instead of just torturing somebody to the extreme for some information. In the text it says, " We know, for example, if Sheikh Khalid Mohammed, a very high value detainee, was subjected to waterboarding.
And it also aims was to maximize the pleasure and reduce the pain that we have experienced. Also, Hedonism considered as philosophy on life, because it makes way to enlightenment in life to create a happiness in life, and to other, it may be a mischance or misfortune. Hedonism also considered as a crime or sin to any religious person, because it is immoral to God to have a self-happiness. But according to Non-Philosopher Hedonism is rather selfish, because it depends on the person if what makes him/ her happy. In this paper, it will show how hedonism affects
277). By using this approach, the decision made depends on what type of person one is. One may believe that by flipping the switch he or she acted as a hero by saving five lives and only ending one life. However, one may also believe that the trolley car was already on path to kill five people, and by deciding to flip the switch, he or she took a murderous action by choosing to change the trolley car’s direction and kill someone else. When taking the virtues approach to decide what to do in an ethical situation, the decision one believes to be the right action to take depends on the type of person that he or she
After reading the scenarios and evaluating my options, I found myself conflicted in deciding which would be the best choice. A utilitarian response seems to be drastic because there are no limits set to what an individual is not allowed to do in the pursuit of their happiness. While my choices were based on allowing the trolley to take its original course and not get involved in the situation myself. In the first scenario, it would seem easier for me to pull the lever and save the five individuals and kill the one on the opposite tracks. I would
According to theory the outcomes will be judged weather the action was morally right or wrong. As per this theory the outcome of any action should minimize the pain and maximize the pleasure. The utilitarianism have two groups one is the Act utilitarian’s focun on the effects of individual actions (Such as Nathuram Godse’s assassination of Mahatma Gandhi) and another is rule utilitarian’s those focus on the effects of types of actions (such as killing or stealing) Utilitarians believe that the purpose of morality is to make life better by increasing the amount of good things (such as pleasure and happiness) in the world and decreasing the amount of bad things (such as pain and unhappiness). They reject moral codes or systems that consist of commands or taboos that are based on customs, traditions, or orders given by leaders