Theory Of Juvenile Delinquency

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Juvenile delinquency has become a major area of social spotlight in recent years and the Social Bond(Control) Theory proffered by Travis Hirschi has been one of the prevalent theoretical perspectives adopted in explaining juvenile delinquency. The theory, instead of stressing what lures individuals to commit crime, the theory places focus on what restrains people from doing so (Özbay &Özcan, 2006; Cheung& Cheung,2008). Hirschi (1969) put forward that self-control as the key force that constrains people from law-breaking acts and social bonds are positively associated with self-control. For instance, stronger social bonds would mean higher self-control among individuals and vice versa. The lower level of self-control one has, the …show more content…

Among all forms of attachments, parental attachment, or family attachment, is the most frequently researched element, looks into parental supervision, time spent between parents and children and parent’s understanding of friends of their children (Booth, Farrell& Varano,2008). The tendency to commit delinquency is found to be negatively associated with the dissemination of prosocial values and quality time spent together with parents (Wright, Cullen & Miller, 2001). Peer attachment is considered as another decisive social bond that alters one to be delinquent or not. Jang (2002) revealed a decrease in parental attachment during adolescence might enhance peer association. Hirschi (1969) recognized the notion as “peer effect” as influential in the way that it could turn individual into delinquents. Alarid, Burton &Cullen (2000) added that the “peer effect” can be delinquent in nature and works to its fullest when youth are found to be strongly attached to their delinquent peers and exposed to delinquent acts displayed by their …show more content…

As Hirschi (1969) noted, individuals have less propensity to be associated with delinquency if they are attached and bonded to conventional society with social bonds attachment, commitment, involvement and belief. Box (1971) added individuals become reluctant to take the calculable risks of offending as long as they felt they are socially connected and integrated.

Hirschi indeed laid the foundation for latter research and tests by scholars. Even though several reviews questioned the empirical status of the theory, others concluded the theory as one of the most widely used and supported criminological theories (Kempf, 1993; Pratt et al., 2011). Andrews & Bonta (1998) also suggested that several competitors of Hirschi recognized the informal social control perspectives of the theory are vital to understanding of crime today. Akers & Sellers (2008) stated Hirschi’s theory actually sparked over 100 published tests with respect to its empirical status.

Moreover, the social bond theory plays a key role for foundation of another criminological perspective known as the life course theory (Sampson & Laub,

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