proven as an effective theory (Akers 1998, 200; Agnew, 2005). The general theory of crime and delinquency shares some of the strengths of social learning theory except this specific theory focuses on a bigger picture of what causes crime and is showed through what Agnew refers as life domains (Akers 1998, 200; Agnew, 2005). The theory also focuses on risk factors and explains how people go through these risk factors across their lifetime (Agnew, 2005). The weaknesses of this theory is that it lacks empirical testing just like the labeling theory but a strength is that social learning theory, deterrence theory, rational choice theory, and Thornberry’s interactional theory of delinquency have been empirically tested which supports this theory
There are several different programs focused on offenders. These programs range from religious, educational, medical and job training related. The main goal in each program is to reduce the chances of them returning back to their old habit that originally placed them in jail or in other words reduce recidivism. Recidivism is a very important element in the criminal justice system, because reducing or increasing the number of re-offenses in the community could be beneficial or make the community flood with criminals and their behavior. Without a focus on recidivism, officers will be arresting the same offenders repeatedly and the individual will not be getting the help they need, which could be the difference of them being a productive member of society or not. With
We were told that this theory is too broad because it explains everything and yet explains nothing. The question of which came first the chicken, or the egg conception is the same of learning is too simplistic. Do we truly learn from those who are closest to us who else can we learn from? We should ask the all-time question, “Why don’t we commit crime?” not why do we.
Two of the most important concepts are the Strain theory by Robert K. Merton and General Strain theory by Robert Agnew. Strain theory describes that society puts pressure on individuals to achieve socially accepted goes such as the American dream. Though they lack the means to have the American dream, which leads to strain, but might lead to the individuals to commit crimes. On the other hand, Robert Agnew’s General theory describes as seeing crime as a coping mechanism to help people deal with socioemotional problems that are generated by negative social relations. Each member of society has similar goals and aspirations. Some have experienced blocked access to their goals producing behavior that is characterized as criminal.
Many theories attempt to explain why individuals commit crime and delinquency acts. Sociologists and criminologists alike utilize empirical evidence to support theories that best explain criminal and deviant behavior. Criminology theories introduced decades ago continue to be hypothesized and tested with current and relevant data to disprove, support, and build upon traditional criminology theories. One such theory, Agnew’s General Strain Theory (GST), was derived from classic strain theory ideas developed from such criminologists as Merton, Cohen, Cloward, and Ohlin who implied that “blocked opportunities to attain successful goals generate a pressure that leads to criminality” (Froggio, 2007, p. 383). Since being introduced in 1992, GST continues
While the courts were ensuring that the Bill of Rights applied to young people as well as adults, juvenile crime was rising in America, making it a serious national problem. Between 1960 and 1973, juvenile arrests for violent offenses and other crimes rose by 144 percent (Roth, 2011). Youth 18 and younger accounted for 45 percent of the arrests for serious crime and 23 percent of arrests for violent crimes (Jones and Krisberg, 1994). Burglaries and auto theft were found to be committed overwhelmingly by minors (Jones and Krisberg, 1994). The peak age for arrests for violent crime was discovered to be 18, and the peak age for property crime was 16 (Jones and Krisberg, 1994).
In the newspaper article Youth Gangs Leading Cause of Delinquencies written by Gene Sherman for the Los Angeles Times, Sherman hits many hard facts regarding the relationship between the youth of the time and the local gangs.
Arriving at the connection of crime to all three of our group 's topics was fairly easy. Each member brainstormed, out loud, their thoughts on ways that plants and cars could possibly lead to juvenile incarceration, which is our third group topic, in order to reveal a general connection. Tying cars to juvenile incarceration took the least creativity, since grand theft auto, driving while intoxicated, and use of vehicles to commit crimes are all issues related to delinquency. Plants was a slightly more challenging topic to link with juvenile incarceration. In general, it was too broad of a topic. After considering specific types of plants, we decided the best connection to use would be marijuana. Possession is illegal, in most places, and leads
57). Research shows that delinquency and youth violence have been on the rise over the decade growing in epidemic proportions since 1993 (Hoyt & Scherer, 1998). Delinquency means for one to break the law and does not have to involve any form of criminal activity in one doing so. However, it is known that antisocial behavior, delinquency, and violence share common roots and similar consequences according to Mcwhirter et al. (2013). Violent crimes committed by youth has escalated by youth victimized by youth violence doubling the in juvenile arrests for violent crime by 2010, and fueled anxieties about future crime wave as the juvenile delinquents mature into adults (Hoyt & Scherer, 1998) with female delinquency making its mark up the ladder according to research. Usually when a youth is classified as a delinquent it is associated with antisocial behaviors within the family and in the community such as aggression and can lead to related problems such as vandalism, substance usage and running away, theft, robbery, and larceny, gang memberships and school shootings. Juveniles are typically not charged like adults unless the crime is serious. Delinquency in the United States is examined with the emphasis on its relation to local communities and the groups and institutions that form the social world of children and adolescents (Cavan &
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) protect children and help to prevent and control the juvenile delinquency. Not only does it improve the juvenile justice system but also they want to make sure that kids are healthy and free from violence. OJJDP promote things they can do for the youth justice system and the safety they can provide for them. They make it their mission to promote what they do to let the youth out there know that there are people that care for them and are willing to help. OJJDP was established through the Juvenile and Delinquency Prevention (JDP) by congress, amended in the public law 93-415, act of 1974.
Crime in our societies is a widespread social phenomenon dating back centuries ago and ranges from low-level delinquencies to high-level offences. Chances are high that one would be involved in crime during their lifetime, either as a victim, or as an assailant. Nevertheless, what really motivates individuals to commit crime? Studies have shown that in different political, economic, and cultural backgrounds, crime occurs in diverse patterns making it a serious social problem. Hence, criminology and sociology experts have examined numerous aspects of crime in an attempt to elucidate why individuals commit crime, and cogently explain its social context. The social disorganization theory developed by Clifford Shaw and Henry D. McKay is one theory that endeavors to explain the phenomenon of crime. This essay aims to analyze, assess, and clarify whether the social disorganization theory accurately dissects the social problem of delinquency.
The set of the structural-functional theories are among the most widespread perspectives on the juvenile delinquency. The group of the theories regards that the behavior of the underage delinquent is caused by the breakdown of the social process that consequently results in the increase of conformity (Thompson & Bynum, 2016). The group of theories presumably blame institutions that are responsible for the socialization of the young delinquents for the way the socialize the individuals by causing them to conform to the values of the society.
Siegel, L. &. (1988). Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice and Law (3rd ed.). United States of America: West Publishing Company.
Juvenile delinquency is a growing social problem in the world today, as worldwide, about 200,000 murders occur among youth 10–29 years of age each year (more than 500 deaths a day), which is 43% of the total number of murders globally each year (WHO, 2016). It is defined as major or minor law breaking (e.g. murder, rape, robbery, and theft) by youth (Berger, 2000) and the United Nations defines ‘youth’, as those persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Consequently, juvenile delinquency is a critical problem in the society, which could lead to social instability by violence and insecurity perpetrated by and against young people. These problems are caused by various influential factors ranging from peer and parental influences, environmental, and strain. It also affected by family process variables (e.g. parent-child involvement, communication, parental monitoring), indeed parenting is one of the important factors among them.
Understanding the risk and protective factors of child delinquency is imperative in order to create and implement treatment and intervention programs. Because children’s behavior develops during the first five years, it is important to know what risk and protective factors could increase the likelihood of a child becoming a child offender (Wasserman et al., 2003). Moreover, overcoming the risk factors would help prevent the child offender from becoming a juvenile, and later, adult offender. As Wasserman et al (2003) stated, “risk factors for child delinquency operate in several domains: the individual child, the child’s family, the child’s peer group, the child’s school, the child’s neighborhood, and the media” (pg.1). As one can see, children are exposed to risk in partially every aspect of their lives. As a parent, it’s important to understand protective factors in order to offset some of the exposure to certain risk.