Social Disorganization Theory
Crime in our societies is a widespread social phenomenon dating back centuries ago and ranges from low-level delinquencies to high-level offences. Chances are high that one would be involved in crime during their lifetime, either as a victim, or as an assailant. Nevertheless, what really motivates individuals to commit crime? Studies have shown that in different political, economic, and cultural backgrounds, crime occurs in diverse patterns making it a serious social problem. Hence, criminology and sociology experts have examined numerous aspects of crime in an attempt to elucidate why individuals commit crime, and cogently explain its social context. The social disorganization theory developed by Clifford Shaw and Henry D. McKay is one theory that endeavors to explain the phenomenon of crime. This essay aims to analyze, assess, and clarify whether the social disorganization theory accurately dissects the social problem of delinquency.
Clifford Shaw and Henry D. McKay, two criminology researchers from the Chicago School of Criminology developed the social disorganization theory in 1942. The theory contends that an individual’s social and physical environments are the principle influences to the behavioral choices that they make. In their research, Shaw and McKay measured and assessed crime, truancy, juvenile delinquency, and mental disorder as part of the problems in Chicago communities. The research
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Usually when a youth is classified as a delinquent it is associated with antisocial behaviors within the family and in the community such as aggression and can lead to related problems such as vandalism, substance usage and running away, theft, robbery, and larceny, gang memberships and school shootings. Juveniles are typically not charged like adults unless the crime is serious. Delinquency in the United States is examined with the emphasis on its relation to local communities and the groups and institutions that form the social world of children and adolescents (Cavan &
Pew Research Center collected information from 3,769 adults to see how they perceive race relation and the equality of minorities in today’s American society. The survey provided an accurate basis for assessing the significance of race relations. The findings illustrated in The Black and White in America shows that more must be done to alleviate the social conditions that results from the color divide. This cultural lag is one of the major sources of social disorganization. In the United States skin color is one obvious difference and it apparent in the survey.
The social disorganization theory suggests that youths turn to delinquency based on the community that they live in. Thus, if a community is primarily known to generally participate in criminal behavior, the youth will not have a strong, structured community to
The Social Disorganization Theory Estelle Templeman Simon Fraser University CRIM 300W: Current Theories and Perspectives in Criminology Dr. Kaitlin Fredericks February 10, 2023 For the purpose of this paper I will be focusing solely on the social disorganization theory. Historical Context
This paper explores the vandalism and graffiti birthed as a result of the “Fire Katehi” movement analyzed with the use of sociological lenses. This movement arose as a result of the UC Davis Chancellor’s decision to take part in a textbook company- a total conflict interest for the students she is supposed to be leading to success. In addition, rumors that Linda Katehi took a seat on a school board for DeVry University when student of UC Davis needed her support and encouragement on her home campus. Using the social disorganization theory and the concept of collective efficacy, social ad communal delinquency and the motivations for vandalism will be defined and accounted for.
Crime is a socially constructed term for deviant behavior and can be examined through two primary lenses. The first is from an individual standpoint, and the second is from a societal standpoint. Psychology pertains to the individual, and sociology pertains to the societal. Psychology studies internal mental processes and human interaction and sociology studies the development, structure, and functioning of society. A part of sociology attempts to identify and explain crime patterns and how they occur.
“The theory of social disorganization states a person’s physical and social environments are primarily responsible for the behavioral choices that a person makes. At the core of social disorganization theory, is that location matters when it comes to predicting illegal activity. Shaw and McKay noted that neighborhoods with the highest crime rates have at least three common problems, physical dilapidation, poverty, and a higher level of ethnic and culture mixing. Shaw and McKay claimed that delinquency was not caused at the individual level, but is a normal response by normal individuals to abnormal conditions. Social disorganization theory is widely used as an important predictor of youth violence and crime.”
The Social disorganization theory is an idea under the social structure theory that focuses on the urban environmental conditions that contribute to the development of crime. Furthermore, the theory states that if one lives in a deteriorated neighborhood where there is inadequate social control and law-violating gangs, there is a greater risk of becoming an offender themselves. There are many factors that contribute to an urban area becoming one of the centers of criminal activity. The most prominent ideas under the social disorganization theory that contribute to an area becoming a crime-ridden concentric zone are as follows: transitional neighborhoods, community deterioration, and chronic unemployment. Transitional neighborhoods are those that are experiencing a shift in population demographics, usually in the form of economic status.
Understanding the risk and protective factors of child delinquency is imperative in order to create and implement treatment and intervention programs. Because children’s behavior develops during the first five years, it is important to know what risk and protective factors could increase the likelihood of a child becoming a child offender (Wasserman et al., 2003). Moreover, overcoming the risk factors would help prevent the child offender from becoming a juvenile, and later, adult offender. As Wasserman et al (2003) stated, “risk factors for child delinquency operate in several domains: the individual child, the child’s family, the child’s peer group, the child’s school, the child’s neighborhood, and the media” (pg.1). As one can see, children are exposed to risk in partially every aspect of their lives.
Having received genetic markers for violent tendencies and aggression from his parents and lacking a supportive and caring home were contributing factors which ultimately added to the outcome of Kuklinski. It is interesting that in comparing Kuklinski’s case to the Chicago School Theories, it would appear that as a youth residing in what would appear to be a zone 2, Kuklinski’s behavior was consistent with that which was anticipated for the area; however, as he gained affluence and moved from zone 2 to that of zone 4 or 5, the outward appearance of criminal behavior diminished as predicted, although as indicated reported activities in these zones were not accurately recorded . As stated by Shaw & McKay, delinquency was the result of environmental factors associated with particular neighborhoods, and such factors within the environment affected the behavior of the delinquents, citing (1) the absence or lack of controls for delinquents; (2) The behaviors are often condoned/ sanctioned by parents or other adults in the neighborhood; (3) the readily availability of opportunities to commit such unacceptable behaviors; and (4) lack of motivation, training, or opportunity for gainful employment (Bohm & Vogel,
The story of 3 girls who were kidnapped and kept captive for over 10years. On May 6 2013 America was thrilled and happy to hear that after 10 years of abduction Michelle Knight, Amanda Berry and Gina Dejesus were finally free. The trio had been abducted by Ariel Castro a bus driver and kept in captivity in his house on 2207 Seymour Avenue. He thinks the young girls all have something in common and that’s it’s their fault for trusted him and accepted a ride from Castro. (Here I am going to relate victimization theory).
In this paper I will be analyzing how living in a stressful, violent, and poverty-ridden environment in combination with racial discrimination can allow residents of that community too develop a “code of the street”, a set of informal rules to abide by. The two theories I will be connecting this matter to, is the social learning theory and social disorganization theory. More often, these street codes and rules are created by young gang members who manage and “run” the neighbourhood and have an influence. It is a requirement for every resident to not only be aware but abide by the rules, it does not matter the age, sex, or colour, but more where that individual resides, at times it may be for survival. Some of the rules in this code are
Applying Park’s and Burgess’ Concentric Zone Model to Crime in Toronto Toronto’s main areas of criminal activity can be explained through different sociological theories of crime, including social disorganization theory, Robert Park’s and Ernest Burgess’ concentric zone model, and Howard Becker’s labelling theory. Social disorganization theory is an example of a social structure theory. Social structure theories include an emphasis on social stratification, unequal distribution of wealth, and how these circumstances affect social values and norms (Slideshow Oct 28th). Specifically, social disorganization theory states that a breakdown of the networks, norms, and trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation among residents can lead to
This research paper draws on existing sociological research and classical social theories to examine juvenile delinquency, and to prove that juvenile delinquency in the schools are linked to social structure, within a sample of the entire form three student population. The two major theories this research paper will highlight is the strain theory coined by Robert Merton and social disorganization theory by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay reason for using the same is that they are old theories, but often relates to modern criminality and delinquency, and also focuses on social structure and social functioning in society. Both social disorganization theory, and strain theory states that high
The associations are reviewed as an aspect of social structure and crime because of associations due to economic struggles by classes of people or groups (Schmalleger, 2012). Social disorganization theory views society as a living organism and that criminal behavior is compared to a disease. Strain theory looks at the lack of fit between socially approved success