Annotated Bibliography Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: The New Press. Alexander opens up on the history of the criminal justice system, disciplinary crime policy and race in the U.S. detailing the ways in which crime policy and mass incarceration have worked together to continue the reduction and defeat of black Americans. Her central thesis is that mass incarceration is “The New Jim Crow,” or the new system of control used by the government to uphold racial class in the U.S.
Strain and Deviance: an empirical test of General Strain Theory of in a Philippine Public University LITERATURE REVIEW Theoretical Background During the past decades, various criminologists developed different theories in an attempt to explain the causes of crime within the society. In return they were successful, as of today it was adopted or accepted, indeed all of theories explain the root causes of crime. One of these theories is anomie or strain theory which originally argues that the lower class frustration to higher class causes crime (Merton, 1938) in attempt to explain why majority of the people who commits crime are lower class. In 1985 Robert Agnew a sociologist come to an interest of studying the theory and finds a potential for the theory in explaining several causes of crime in society, but due to its limitation he developed and reformulated the theory to widen its dimension or scope. After revising the theory he come up into General strain theory of crime and builds its foundation in 1992.
Those are the at-risk gangs or thugs that is frequently said to African American gangs. In the 1990s, gang violence was on the rise, where it was dominantly founded in youths. Anderson, Dyson, and Lee (1996) argued that when a group of African American youths join together and commits delinquent acts and crime, they already categorized as gangs to the American public. This affect and many other affects is what creates an increase in gang violence. Those other factors are socioeconomic status, history, race, gendered, and geographic background.
Annotated Bibliography: Racial Profiling This is an annotated bibliography researching the reasons for, effects of, and solutions to racial profiling by law enforcement in the United States. I am researching racial profiling and is it justified in law enforcement. Bou-habib, Paul. "Racial Profiling and Background Injustice." The Journal of Ethics, vol.
Palmiotto focuses on the uses force and the effects it can have in social, criminal, and human rights. Palmiotto is also a professor and has a PH. D in Criminal Justice in the School of Community Affairs, showing the authority in the book he has for his thoughts and viewpoints. The audience pertains to anyone as it addressed as a national issue. Many of the chapters of the author focuses on racism and profiling which Palmiotto addresses as major concern.
Racial profiling is a very important issue that individuals in society face every day. This problem occurs in low income or poverty-stricken areas throughout cities and communities across the nation. Hundreds of anecdotal testimonials allege that law enforcement officials at all levels of government are infringing upon the constitutional rights and civil liberties of racial and ethnic minorities through a practice called “racial profiling” (Ward, 2002). So what is racial profiling? According to the National Institute of Justice, racial profiling by law enforcement is commonly defined as a practice that targets people for suspicion of crime based on their race, ethnicity, religion or national origin (National Institute of Justice, 2013).
This crime was one that was planned. The objective of criminological theories is to help one gain an understating of crime and criminal justice. Speculations cover the making and the infringing upon of the law, criminal and degenerate conduct, and additionally examples of criminal movement All of the listed theories play an important role regarding the reason why Aaron Hernandez committed the
Criminology is the knowledge regarding crime and delinquency as a social issue. Criminology has within its scope the process of reacting toward the breaking of laws, breaking laws, and making laws. The objective of all criminology is the development of a body of
Crimes on the other hand can harm another person. One issue in our society pertaining to criminal justice is criminology. Criminology is a branch of sociology and has in effect been studied in one way or another for thousands of years. Criminologists look at a broad range of topics related to crime. They are dedicated to studying not only the causes of crime, but the social impact as well.