Analysis – Section 1: Sex Tests To give a brief background, sex tests were created and administered by the International Olympics Committee Medical Commission (IOCMC) in 1966, and is used against women who had more masculine features than their peers. Jayne Caudwell, author of Sporting Gender: Women's Footballing Bodies As Sites/Sights For The (Re) Articulation Of Sex, Gender, And Desire, researched female-athletes and their experience with oppression in that sense. In fact, the test is designed so that men cannot get away with playing as a woman (Caudwell 378). This is truly exemplified when one athlete, “Laura (age 33) quotes remarks from male speculators: ‘Well, we don’t think that number 9 on the other side’s female’ and ‘Have you had …show more content…
K.L. Broad, an associate professor at the University of Florida and author of The Gendered Unapologetic: Queer Resistance In Women's Sport, researches, “… how women’s rugby in the early 1990s can be understood as a site of queer resistance in sport, with the attendant controversies of any queer act” (K.L. Broad 182). She argues that the underlying, “assumption has been, ‘sports are masculine; therefore, women in sports are masculine; therefore, women in sports are lesbians’” (182). This assumption plainly illustrates how women, lesbian or not, are discriminated against for even playing a sport. Broad clearly goes into rugby, as that is a very rugged and physical sport, and studies how these women interact with their male and female …show more content…
Once again, Jayne Caudwell researches and analyzes multiple films and the impact of feminism, sexuality and its oppression in the themes of these films in the paper Girlfight And Bend It Like Beckham: Screening Women, Sport, And Sexuality. Caudwell first analyzes how, “[the] films’ themes—struggles to participate in boxing/football and explicit focus on sexual identity—run concurrently. As a result it is possible to conclude that despite the films being about sport and women’s entry to previously denied sport spaces, they are also, unsurprisingly, about sexuality” (257). Caudwell uses the themes of both movies to connect it to the similarities it shows in society. She sees that the sports which are mainly tied to that of male athletics, and how these women are unable to live without the fear of being targeted against in their field. It should also be pointed out that Caudwell is an English professor, and as such her use of football is equivalent to that of soccer in the United
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In today’s society, transgender and sex changes are more commonly seen and talked about. The IOC or the International Olympic Committee recently has passed that transgender women aren’t required to undergo gender-reassignment surgery. The IOC main focus is about an equal playing field for all athletes and being accepting to all races, gender, and nationality. However, multiple factors would cause issues on fairness to allow transgender athlete compete in their new sex. Therefore, athletes in the Olympic Games that have declared a different gender than they were born with should not be allowed to represent their country unless, participating in the athletes’ original sexual genotype.
Further, the cover images rarely featured a female athlete as the sole or primary image; female athletes were more commonly featured sharing the spotlight with a male athlete" (Sherry et al 309). What Sherry et al is stating is that female athletes are portrayed as less than athletes when compared to male athletes. Yabroff displays an example that aids Sherry et al's claim that women are portrayed as lesser athletes than men. Sherry et al believes that women are portrayed as less than athletes because they are shown throughout the
“Tired of being out of shape and out of luck with the opposite sex?” begins the film Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story. Director and screenwriter Rawson Marshall Thurber immediately defines the atmosphere of the film as that of comparison and competition with this opening scene. As the plot furthers, this competitive attitude intensifies as main characters Peter Lefleur and White Goodman struggle for dominance. The film demonstrates a vertical homosocial relationship between the two men, in which a hierarchy of masculinity is created “through competition and exclusion” (Hammaren and Johansson 3). White Goodman’s evident wealth and influence lead him to threaten the manhood of Peter Lefleur in order to further his own masculine reputation.
In the article titled Face-off on the playing field By, Judith B. Stamper explains girls have their own story of support or discrimination, success also the debate of girls be allowed to compete on boys’ sports team. First, the writer Title IX explains female athletes are been treated second-class for long enough and should pass of inequalities and biases of girls. The writer also clarifies that girls doing sports make them healthier, physically, and emotionally. Other girls that don’t play sports are less likely to use of drugs. In addition, she notes a former Stanford University basketball player Mariah says, strength and independence of things girls learn from sports, the opportunities that are changing women.
The social theories that I have chosen to focus on are Conflict Theory and Feminist Theory. I have decided to study these concepts as they share both similar and contradictory ideas of sport participation and power in sport. I will also explore the topic of disability and sport in an attempt to illustrate the great need for integration of athletes with disabilities into mainstream clubs and teams. Finally, I will investigate the area of sexuality and sport, a subject which I believe has remained very much concealed until recent times. Conflict theory states that “social order is based on economic interests and the use of economic power to exploit labour”.
If society stops to understand the struggles these women have been facing for decades will have a clearer picture of what steps to take in order to make a change in the sports industry. Men need to put their masculinity aside and advocate giving women a voice. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues women in the sport world have faced through history, wage gaps, current issues today, and to discuss findings and recommendations for future research. Title IX is a law that came into effect in 1972, this comprehensive federal law prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program or activity.
Primary research is ‘the operationalization of theoretical constructs, the research design’ the data collection strategy can then be ‘tailored to [allow] the research question’ (Hox & Boeije, 2005) allowing for the fluidity of the inductive and deductive research cycle to be utilised. This will not only will this allow for the reasons behind the changes in women’s football to be brought to the forefront, but will also enable the research to explore ‘why’ these changes have occurred and how they impacted the women’s version of the game in this ‘malestream culture’ with regards to the social context (Talbot, 2002;280). A method of primary research that will be used throughout the research will be oral sources of data. Since the time being researched contains the past, ‘historians have to collect the impressions and recollections’ from surviving documents or literature published at the time being studied. The oral sources consist of public records, which are documents that can include, letters, minutes, interviews and diaries, ‘such materials can give an exhilarating sense of touching the ‘real’ past’ (Tosh, 2016: 254).
Such countries do not have as prevalent gender binaries, making it difficult to precisely isolate a gender. Sex testing athletes has forced a binary upon them, making them identify as solely male or female. This is in part due to how the United States has raised the professional athletes from a young age. Children are heavily exposed to certain toys, sports, clothes, shows, and more based on their binary; and if the child were an athlete there was greater pressure to fit into a binary that matched their role. The clear gender binary among the US men and women national soccer team is in part of gendered
Sylvia Plath’s idea for male dominance frames Maria Burton Nelson’s argument about gender expectations for women’s sports. Using an anecdote as her title “I won, I’m sorry”; it explains why both Nelson and Plath have somewhat similar arguments. Nelson’s argument is that females are being “attacked” by males while they are playing sports and Plath’s argument is that males should be first in anything and everything. Nelson uses Plath’s quote about her letting the man be first, gets the readers angry, because some modern women do not think like Plath.
Introduction The Football Association (FA) has been under pressure to allow girls to play in the same teams as boys since 1978, following 12-year-old Theresa Bennett’s application to play with boys in a local league. In 1991, the FA agreed to introduce Rule C4 to permit males and females to play together in competitive matches under the age of 11. Campaigns from groups such as the Women’s Sport Foundation, made the FA agreed to trial mixed football for the under-12 to under-15 age categories to establish the risk of injury to players in sex-integrated competitions. A series of changes followed: between 2010 and 2014, the age at which mixed football was permitted increased from U11 to U16.
When athletes have higher testosterone levels, they tend to be stronger and faster. In “Olympic Lady Gender Testing?” SourceFed states, “The I.A.A.F. policy wants to ban female athletes with high levels of testosterone” (Olympic Lady Gender Testing, Bereta & Newton). Joe Bereta and Lee Newton discuss how people produce testosterone at different levels that we can’t control. If we are not in control of our testosterone levels that is produced, then we should not be penalizing when it comes to fair competition.
Which has increased the number of woman participationing in leisure recreation such as sports, they are still influenced by social stereotypes such as sports. Even at an early age children think gymnastics is feminine while boxing masculine. She then goes on to references an article by George that states a stigma occurs when someone acts different then the social norm and also falls into a stereotype. This is definitely true for boys as they are more under pressure to conform to social ideals and show their masculinity. Schmalz, Dorothy L; at Clemson university and Kerstetter, Deborah L at Pennsylvania state university worked together on their research paper that is based on doctoral dissertation
The topic of intersex and transgender athletes competing in sports has generated a significant deal of debate and discussion in recent years. This divisive topic has been influenced by a variety of cultural attitudes and ideas, such as gender stereotypes and the notion that physical characteristics and biology determine athletic aptitude. This essay will examine the key points about intersex and transgender athletes in sports, and we'll also take a look at how an anthropological perspective may approach this complex and multifaceted topic. Cultural norms about gender identity and expression are an important factor in the discussion of transgender athletes. Some people hold the view that sex should be classified according to an athlete's biological
The issue of transgender athletes in women's sports requires a delicate balance between inclusivity, fairness, and safety. Lately, the topic of gender identity in sports has been controversial, particularly regarding transgender males participating in women's sports. Promoting diversity and gender equality is important, but we must also consider fairness and safety. Allowing transgender males to compete in women's sports could create potential advantages that impact opportunities for cisgender women and affect the level playing field.
Scholars have discovered an association of some sports (e.g., gymnastics, dance, and figure skating) with beauty and grace that observers mostly regard as feminine (Koivula 2001). Conversely, sports like football and boxing are associated with violence, aggression and physical contact, and are regarded as masculine (Koivula 2001). Further cementing the gendered ideology of sport is the presence of scantily clad young women as ‘card girls’ at boxing matches and cheerleaders at football games (Oates, 1987). These gendered categories and practices are immersed in social ideas which are influenced by what the members of society consider should be done (Appleby and Foster 2013:14). Such persistent beliefs limit opportunities for sport participation for both male and female athletes (Coakley