The social theories that I have chosen to focus on are Conflict Theory and Feminist Theory. I have decided to study these concepts as they share both similar and contradictory ideas of sport participation and power in sport. I will also explore the topic of disability and sport in an attempt to illustrate the great need for integration of athletes with disabilities into mainstream clubs and teams. Finally, I will investigate the area of sexuality and sport, a subject which I believe has remained very much concealed until recent times. Conflict theory states that “social order is based on economic interests and the use of economic power to exploit labour”. (Coakley, 2003, p.28). Feminist theory is modelled on the idea that “social order is based primarily on the values, experiences, and interests of men with power. Social life and social order is gendered and based on patriarchal ideas.” (Coakley, 2003, p.29). If we study conflict theory we can see that those who possess economic power have the majority of the control in sports and sporting events. Activities such as golfing which require the purchase of expensive goods or membership are more widely accessible to those of higher socioeconomic groups. Townsend (1997) found that as well as this, those from higher socioeconomic backgrounds found it feasible to attend cricket events which could last for several days or to spend a day on the golf course. In relation to golf, when companies began to produce more affordable golf
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This framework includes 5 levels. The individual, interpersonal, institutional, structural and cultural, these areas are used to investigate the ways in which inequities challenge the area of sport and physical activity. I know from personal experience some of my sport choices has been affected from these levels, either because of cost or because the only facilities for these sports were not near the area that we lived in. When it comes to athletics, I haven’t personally been always engaged in this for various reasons, pressure from others watching you as it is an induvial sport. As I have been more interested in other team sports such as basketball getting better in these sports had become a priority.
Destyne Marrero Psy 0184 Dr. C “Will Women Play Major League Baseball? (And Not Just on TV)” The article examines the societal debate that has been talk for a while: should women play sports alongside men? After a certain age the opportunity for girls to play specific sports are inherently very limited. Women are forced into sports like softball, field hockey, and powderpuff football, while the range of male sports seems unlimited.
K.L. Broad, an associate professor at the University of Florida and author of The Gendered Unapologetic: Queer Resistance In Women's Sport, researches, “… how women’s rugby in the early 1990s can be understood as a site of queer resistance in sport, with the attendant controversies of any queer act” (K.L. Broad 182). She argues that the underlying, “assumption has been, ‘sports are masculine; therefore, women in sports are masculine; therefore, women in sports are lesbians’” (182). This assumption plainly illustrates how women, lesbian or not, are discriminated against for even playing a sport. Broad clearly goes into rugby, as that is a very rugged and physical sport, and studies how these women interact with their male and female
As another example, feminism is a movement that fits in this school of thought. Feminism focuses on the subordination of women (a group conflicting with another more advantaged group [men]) and looks at how the relationships among the two groups are defined, perpetuated, and
Little did they know women all around the world formed a women rights movement in the late 1920’s. Women wanted to prove themselves with their protest and riots they started. It was not until the “1960’s and ’70s [women] sought equal rights and opportunities and greater personal freedom for women”, (BRITANNICA). The topic about athletic competition and how men did not find it ladylike was dropped and women were able to compete.
She explores the nondiscrimination aspect of equal opportunity and suggests that the characteristic of sex should not be taken into account in relation to sports. In the article, it is explained that philosophers have developed three major positions concerning equal opportunity, but have focused on fields in which the sexes are either known or assumed to have equal potentialities. In regards to sports, some relevant differences between the sexes do appear to be permanent. This causes all three major positions concerning equal opportunity to be deficient when applied to this area. The author attempts to explain how physical attributes that men have and women do not add to the lack of equal opportunity in the sports
The sight of school girls playing rugby would seem farfetched to the larger society. The rise of ideologies such as feminism within modern times, however, has challenged the notion that women are supposed to have specific roles within sports. The above article illustrates that what was once a male dominated sport is now accessible to girls. It also makes the case that by engaging in a team sport, these girls learn important social skills which would make them become positive members of society. By utilising sociological theories associated with gender socialisation at the primary and secondary levels we can understand the cause of this surge in popularity of rugby among school girls, as well as appreciate how functionalism explains the positive impact the sport has on
The feminist theory obviously tries to find out the main principle of domestic abuse, and in doing so they see the root causes of domestic violence as the consequence of the outcome of us living in a society that aggressive behaviors are perpetrated by men, while the belief that women are socializing to be non-violent(Pence & Paymar, 1993). Proponents of the feminist theory do acknowledge that women can be violent in relationships with men; however they do not see that it can also be an issue of women abusing men in domestic violence cases, so it does not warrant the same amount of
Feminism, the belief that women are and should be treated as intellectual and social equals to men. By its nature, feminism supports the belief that “all people are entitled to freedom and liberty within reason --including equal civil rights-- and that discrimination should not be made based on gender, sexual orientation, skin color, ethnicity, religion, culture, or lifestyle.” Feminists campaign in areas such as “reproductive rights, domestic violence, gay marriage, and workplace issues” (EKU). When an issue includes stereotyping, objectification, infringements of human rights, or sexuality-based oppression, it's a feminist issue. Contrary to popular belief, feminism does not mean putting the female gender above the male one, rather it promotes equality.
Although over time gender discrimination has grown progressively over the years, one place that gender inequality is not fully present is in the sports world. Gender inequality in sports has been an issue in the industry for centuries. For years and years women faced the issues of lower pay, not as much publicity and not being appreciated as a female athlete. Clearly, even in this prevalent era of alleged equality and impartiality, most sports still remains as a male dominion, as there still is an unnoticed barrier between sport and woman. Through this analysis, I wanted to investigate some of the initial causes for the above circumstances.
Pleasure and participation sports today are popular to the extent that people define them as attractive alternatives to the more culturally dominant power and performance sports. Factors that will motivate this search for alternatives today are (1) concerns about health and fitness, (2) participation preferences among older people, (3) values and experiences brought to sports by women, and (4) groups seeking alternatives to highly structured, competitive sports that constrain their
Feminism is a collection of social theories originating in the 1960’s, which set out to achieve social change due to dissatisfaction that issues affecting women within society were largely ignored, reducing them to a disempowered, subservient role within society (Malcolm, 2008; Coakley and Pike, 2014; Woods, 2011). Each strand of feminism set out to achieve social change in a different way, however feminists as a whole hold the prevailing belief that sports are organised around an ideology that emphasises male domination, superiority and conquest (Houlihan, 2008). Critical feminist theory is suited to asking pertinent questions about the issues of power and the dynamics of gender relations in sports and social life in general (Coakley and Pike, 2014). Theorists focus on issues of power and seek to explain the origin and consequences of gender relations, in particular those which privilege men over women.
One final issue facing sports is providing an equal opportunity to all children to play whatever sport they desire regardless of their family’s income. The privatization of youth sports has made it very difficult for children of lower income families to play sports because they must now pay to be a part of a club or league in addition to the already high and continually rising prices of athletic equipment. As a child, I do not think that I understood things such as race and social class to the extent that I do now. I grew up playing sports with children of different race and social status, but that was never something that I paid attention to because in my eyes, we were all there for the same reason which was to have fun and enjoy whatever sport we were playing. Despite the differences and similarities between
In sports, it is very important to center on social organization in relation to who has access to power, who has authority, resources available, and different economic opportunities. According to Simon (2016), “There is so much at stake in social inequalities. Conflict theory impels us to recognize that every dimension of social structure can be conceptualized in terms of winners and losers, and social conflict often causes disastrous and tragic consequences for the losers in the social struggle.” In some cases people can become bullied or even tortured as a consequence of social conflict. It is a shame people have to be shunned and mortified because of a choice of social structure in which they participate.