‘Focusing on capitalism and wage workers’ “estranged labour,” Marx broke with Hegels “ abstract” emphasis on consciousness and equation of objectification with alienation(Ritzer 2000:96) In the profound theory of alienation Marx continued to answer questions of the development of capitalism. He found that workers in a capitalist society do not possess the raw materials machines or factories in which they work with, but are owned by the capitalists in which the labours have to sell their ability to work in return of a wage. This arrangement of work shows four relations that lie at the centre of Marx 's theory of alienation 1, the worker is cut off or alienated from their productivity and not having any say in deciding what to do or actions to approach the productive activity that is given by the capitalist whom sets the conditions and speed that the labourer should be completing and having complete control the decision if the worker can work or not. Marx saw this as the ‘unequal relation between persons.’ (Ritzer 2000:101) 2, workers are alienated from the product meaning they have no control to how the product is being handled once it has left their station the labour is not free or enjoyable. ‘Marx saw all social life as bearing the imprints of material conditions’ (Ritzer 2002:107) 3, workers are alienated from others and their natural environment.
“The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”. Karl Marx used the word “struggle” repeatedly for the social changes in describing how society move forward. In his theory, a commodity is something that is bought and sold, or exchanged in a market. It has a “use – value” determined by the qualities of things and the purposes or needs because the commodity can satisfy human’s need and it also has a “exchange – value” determined by quantities of things and what can be gotten for them. As use – values, commodities have all of different qualities, but in terms of exchange – values, they are just different quantities and do not contain the use – value.
First, the German thinker, Marx, and a letter called “ Manifesto of the Communist Party”, bring about the concept of communism that was being used in many areas back in the olden days. For Mussolini, the Italian revolutionary, who adopted socialism but discovered later that it was not yet the right answer for himself. He was supported by the King Victor Emmanuel, then he became the prime minister, and established fascism for his own ruling. Initially, communism focuses on a classless society while fascists believe in a class-based society. As a result of capitalism, there were class struggles between “Bourgeoisie” the middle class and “Proletarians” working class.
According to Karl Marx, Capitalism is a mode of production based on private ownership of the means of production. Karl Marx saw the class struggle and the main reason would be by a group which he called the bourgeoisie; middle class industrial owners who own the means of production such as machinery, assets, raw materials and the proletariats were the workforce, the labor that serve to work for the former. The proletariats are the class of modern wage-laborers who, unlike the bourgeoisies, do not own the means of production of their own, are reduced to selling their labor power for survival. Karl Marx hated the bourgeoisies’ attitude towards the proletariats, showing no care concern and mercilessly exploiting their labour by paying
In the late 1800s, Frederick Engels and Karl Marx authored The Communist Manifesto to voice the beliefs of working men’s associations, workers who no longer could stand oppression by a ruling class. Marx’s fundamental proposition of The Communist Manifesto, as summarized by Engels was, “that in every historical epoch, the prevailing mode of economic production and exchange, and the social organization necessarily following from it, form the basis on which is built up, and from which alone can be explained, the political and intellectual history of that epoch...” (Marx, 53). Through this claim, Engels proposes that the way people produce and exchange products and services in the economy affects the arrangement of people in society and both in turn influence the government of the society as well as people’s beliefs and ways of thinking. I will that Marx and Engels’ claim is an oversimplification, as the idea that Engels and Marx proposed, that the economy is the reason for the arrangement of society, which then explains the political and intellectual history of the time period, is missing the key factor of human behavior as the driving force behind the economy. Marx’s theory of history describes the journey of society through six distinct stages: primitive communism, slave society, feudalism, capitalism, socialism, and communism.
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of most property in common which advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole. Key Proponents Karl Marx, Fredrik Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky. Robert Owen, Pierre Leroux, Karl Marx, Fredrick Engels, John Stuart Mill, Albert Einstein, George Bernard Shaw, Thorstein Veblen, Emma Goldman. Concept of State According to Marxian point of view, communism regards state as a negative institution that has been instrumental in the exploitation of the oppressed classes at the hands of the wealthy classes. Thus, communism wants to abolish state structure after attaining the goal of classless society.
His aims were to revolutionize the concept of work through creating a classless society built on control and ownership of the means of production. Marx believed that Economic Determinism, Dialectical Materialism and Class Struggle were the three principles that explained his theories. The Bourgeois (Dominant class who control and own the means of production) and Proletariat (Subordinate class: Don’t own and control the means of production) were the only two classes who engaged in aggressive interaction to achieve class consciousness. Class struggle appeared all throughout history. At first, people lived in small communist societies.
Aranda, Castañeda 3 Some of the mistakes he did was including a lot of socialist ideas that were grabbed by the articles Marx wrote on the radical newspapers from Germany, or by twisting the words he expressed, to make him seem like a communist leader whose purpose was to make all people equivalent except for him, and gaining all the control of a country. For this and for many other reasons, Marx was forced to leave Germany. Another topic from Karl Marx’s theory which is nowadays questioned by modern sociologists is something known as class structure or class division. Class structure is the way Karl Marx divided the social classes. Plenty of people considered this as an offense during that time, which is the reason why his works are so criticized nowadays.
Finally, a connection will be drawn between such Marxist analysis and state of the Capitalist system as it exists in the current South African socio-political and economic climate, examined vis-à-vis a contemporary newspaper article, Business rescue for Lily Mine only option, says Solidarity, alluding to such structures and contradictions. Marx achieved an unrivalled complexity in his analysis through his use of the materialist dialectic, which sought a material and economic basis in reality in order to understand the ‘superstructure’ – those elements of ideology and other institutional aspects (Best, 2003). To properly outline the structural components of Capitalism, one must begin with its smallest functional unit founded in the material world – the
This essay covers the specific problems of Althusser 's worldview and aims to demonstrate that the general ideas described in Althusser 's “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses” are still applicable to the modern pluralistic society, but do require some minor modifications. Althusser differentiated between two types of ISAs that make the capitalist mode of production possible. The first one was called Repressive State Apparatus(RSA) and was comprised of various types of executive state structures and institutions. The RSAs, according to Althusser, are mainly used to maintain a monopoly of power inside of the capitalist society and at the same time to apply that monopoly in order to sustain capitalist class structures. The second one was called Ideological State Apparatus(ISA) and was working not by power or politics but rather by ideological influence.