The questions of the whether social inequality is justified and the extent of government to address said inequality are some of the foundations upon which societies and economies are built. Two key philosophers on this issue – John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau – differ on this subject. In Two Treatises on Government, Locke holds that individuals have a right to property derived from their labor, citizens consent to the existence of inequality in society, and governments are instituted among men to protect said property. In contrast, Rousseau writes in Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and The Social Contract that inequality should be strictly limited and that governments have a duty to act in the best interest of its citizens by maintaining
The socialist account of history is that capitalism is unjust and leads to the downfall of great nations. Socialists envision a strong working class with democratic control over the production of goods. Socialists view the proletariat (the working class) as the bedrock or foundation of the economy. In the Communist Manifesto, Karl
Hence, both De Tocqueville and Marx claim that separation in those modern communities is guaranteed, on the other hand, both of these thinkers majorly differ, because Marx holds that the working class will eventually gain "class consciousness" (Marx, 1844) and demolish capitalism to settle for an equal
Lenin is important in world history because he was all about getting the working class to conform and not question the Socialist economic system. Aldous Huxley has really got Lenin’s ideas anthropomorphized in the form of Lenina because she exemplifies how nobody could think or believe anything other than what the government, or Lenin wanted them to. Lenina is a robotic pawn of government in the World Slave State. Lenina isn’t a revolutionary like Vladmir Lenin, some would argue that Lenin and her simply share the same name. Lenin was a head figure in the Socialist government who coined the idea of having mass amounts of people working for “society” and ultimately the one who would benefit is the government.
Power vs. Powerless Aldous Huxley connects his book, Brave New World, to Karl Marx’s principles. Karl Marx is a German philosopher that the class differences in society. He studied most specifically class differences, economic differences, cultural differences. Marx states that “The separate individuals form a class only insofar as they have to carry on a common battle against another class; otherwise they are on hostile terms with each other as competitors.”(Karl Marx) Marx believes that class conflict and difference is inevitable. However, in Brave New World, the class are separated to Alphas, Deltas, Gammas, and Epsilons.
According to Marx there are only two classes which exist: Bourgeoisie, which means powerful or dominant class and Proletariat, which means the peasant or working classes. Bourgeoisie, which gains the power, defines superstructure “including all social and legal institution, all political and educational systems, all religions and all art” (Bressler, 162), and articulate the ideology which is based on profits of bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisie ideology leads to alienation of individuals, especially proletariats. This bourgeoisie ideology creates the clash between the two classes. Marx supported the working class and their victory over dominant class.
Marx and Engels wrote that capitalist globalization was completely eroding the foundations of the international system of states in the mid-1840s. Conflict and competition between nation-states had not yet over in their view but the main fault-lines in future looked certain to revolve around the two main social classes: the national bourgeoisie, which controlled different systems of government, and an increasingly cosmopolitan proletariat. Over revolutionary action, the international proletariat would insert the Enlightenment principles of liberty, equality and fraternity in an exclusively new world order which would free all human beings from exploitation and domination. Many traditional theorists of international relations have pointed to the failures of Marxism or historical materialism as an explanation of world history. Marxists had undervalued the vital importance of nationalism, the state and war, and the implication of the balance of power, international law and diplomacy for the structure of world politics.
Class struggles are a fundamental part of human history: The idea behind this according to Marx is that history is a series of stages, defined by their mode of production and the struggle between classes: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." According to Marx, the current historical stage is the capitalist historical stage. This is the conflict between the bourgeoisie (middle class) and the proletariat (working class). This theory is supported by the historical stages preceding the capitalist historical stage which can easily be defined by their modes of production and class struggle, or lack thereof. For example, before the existence of civil society, there were no class struggles.
Marx’s main concern was that of capitalism and class conflict. In the words of Giddens and Sutton (2013), capitalism is ‘a system of production that contrasts radically with all previous economic systems.’ It was Marx’s belief that all societies, including capitalist societies, are divided into classes, with one being the dominant class. In the case of capitalism, there are two main classes, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Class conflict, Marx believed, was what encouraged the evolution of society. To quote Marx himself, The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.
In this Essay I will compare and contrast two major theoretical perspectives in Sociology. The Functionalist theory of Emile Durkheim and the Marxist theory of Karl Marx (Giddens, 2009, p. 72) Sociology is the scientific study of social life. It describes and analyses social behaviour. It seeks to discover how human society has come to be the way it is, and reveal the social forces that shape people’s lives. (Sociology.ie, 2014) Emile Durkheim (1798-1857) was a French sociologist, who was interested in the impact of the industrial revolution on how people behaved in society.