Marx is known as a conflict theorist and has a macro approach to how society is shaped, and that society shapes the individual. Marxist ideology believes that social control in the capitalist society is formed by the ruling class. This ruling class sets the values and norms of the
Marx argues that the division of labor results in alienation, and he focused on the social inequalities between two social classes. Unlike him, Durkheim claims that the division of labor is not necessarily bad for the society, it creates a feeling of solidarity between group members. Marx is quite concerned with how people relate to the most fundamental resource of all, their own power of labor and the problems of alienation. The deprive of the ownership of their labor and their own thoughts, according to Marx, causes the alienation of workers from their nature and consequently causes conflicts between the two social classes. In his opinion, the division of labor and class inequality will eventually bring about the social stratification.
‘Focusing on capitalism and wage workers’ “estranged labour,” Marx broke with Hegels “ abstract” emphasis on consciousness and equation of objectification with alienation(Ritzer 2000:96) In the profound theory of alienation Marx continued to answer questions of the development of capitalism. He found that workers in a capitalist society do not possess the raw materials machines or factories in which they work with, but are owned by the capitalists in which the labours have to sell their ability to work in return of a wage. This arrangement of work shows four relations that lie at the centre of Marx 's theory of alienation 1, the worker is cut off or alienated from their productivity and not having any say in deciding what to do or actions to approach the productive activity that is given by the capitalist whom sets the conditions and speed that the labourer should be completing and having complete control the decision if the worker can work or not. Marx saw this as the ‘unequal relation between persons.’ (Ritzer 2000:101) 2, workers are alienated from the product meaning they have no control to how the product is being handled once it has left their station the labour is not free or enjoyable. ‘Marx saw all social life as bearing the imprints of material conditions’ (Ritzer 2002:107) 3, workers are alienated from others and their natural environment.
Take-home Midterm 1) Please assess three models of state in Marxian theory. In Marxian theory, it is based on capitalism, as the economic relations determine social and political life. Marx sees capitalism as mode of production and in an economic level it has relatively and tentatives point of view about state. Marx critised three models of state and its relations with capitalist system and bourgeoisie. These models are the instrumental model, the arbiter model and the functionalist model (Nash 4-6).
Socioeconomic status is frequently considered to be a potential confounder or a risk factor for overweight and obesity in health studies. Although there is general agreement that SES is a multidimensional construct, scholars tend to include only one socioeconomic status component in their predictive models and few researches have provided an explicit theoretical and methodological rationale for the choice of indicators (Ball et al., 2002). Socioeconomic status is a measure of an individual’s position within society that is determined by the access to collectively desired resources (Oakes and Rossi, 2003). The SES concept has emerged from the class approach to social structure analysis, primarily developed by Karl Marx and Max Weber, and consequently
Framing social inequality, he ‘elaborates a theory of class that fuses the Marxian insistence of economic determination with the Weberian recognition of the distinctiveness of the cultural order and the Durkheimian concern for classification’ (Wacquant 2007, 270). By combining different theories, Bourdieu distances himself from the unilateral Marxist theory of classes. Instead of focusing on social inequality and a class based system simply on behalf of economic estate, he ‘argues that classes arise in the conjunction of shared position in social space and shared dispositions actualized in the sphere of consumption’ (ibid, 272). Thus, he draws upon the concepts of habitus, capital and fields when capturing and explaining social
Throughout this sociological investigation, a critical examination of Karl Marx and German sociologist, Max Weber, will be invited in conversation to explore their conceptualisation of social status and class. One will note that throughout this investigation, the concepts of social status and class will be compared by a means of investigating how they are attained, maintained and challenged with reference to specific examples that place these concepts in their respected contexts. According to Max Weber, the term class may be conceptualised as ‘’a group of persons occupying the same class status’’ (Weber, 1947: 424). Max Weber states that class status ‘’is applied to the typical probability that a given state of provision of goods, external
From the social point of view, processes are qualified as being endogenous when they occur within the social system, conflicts arising due to tensions between socially unequal groups and classes, inequality being powered by economically contradictions, which, ultimately, grow into social contradictions calling for change. In this scenario, we can point to labour and capital contradictions and, at the social level, contradictions between the proletariat and bourgeoisie, inevitably leading to class struggle, the Marxian framework being connected with an endogenous theory of social change (Valade, 2006). Marx maintained that social inequalities typical of capitalism would end only when the working class had established the proletarian class. This, he argued, would bring in a classless, collectivist society, with distribution of social goods to each according to their individual needs. Marx’s model raises, but does not solve,
on the other hand, Economics is the study of how people choose to use resources, it is related to money and the method of production and management of material wealth. So the and term 'Social economics ' may refer broadly to the "use of economics in the study of society." More narrowly, contemporary scholars relate it to behavioral links of persons and groups through social capital and social "markets" and shape of social norms. Socio-Economic also discusses how the economic activities affect and creates social process. In general it analyzes how societies progress and decline because of limited economy.
I’d like to show how Marxism and modernization are not as against each other as it is claimed, they in fact share many similarities. Marxism is a radical political philosophy that views world from economic and sociologist lenses. Marxism acknowledges that society comprises various classes of people and that capitalistic mode of economy further deepens this class structure by creating a gap between those haves and have-nots. In other words, Marxism believes that capitalism forms two major economic classes in the society; one is bourgeoisie that holds major forms of productions and processes most of the resources of the society while the other is proletariat that sells labour to bourgeoisie and virtually suffers from hand to mouth problem all the time. To make matter worse, modernization theory, which Marxism believes is an essential element of capitalism, further worsens the imbalances between the economic classes.