Imagine that you are teaching a lesson and want to know how effective your teaching is. The most natural way to measure this would be to administer a test to gauge student learning. If your students perform well, you know you are teaching effectively. If they perform poorly, you might need to re-evaluate some of your methods. Standardized tests are also so named because, no matter which school or classroom you are in, the testing process is identical.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter provides a brief description of the whole content of the research, including background, statement of the problems, aims of the study, scope of the study, significance of the study, hypothesis and organization of paper. 1.1 Background Reading is one of the most important skills which has to be learned by the students in order to master English well. Most students are not natural born readers. In fact, reading is not a naturally occurring skill at all, but rather a complex process that requires a careful and systematic instructional approach according to the research gathered by the National Reading Panel (2002). Reading is also included into receptive skill besides listening.
What Came First, Reading or Writing? Thinking back upon my education in my early childhood years, school has always been the foundation to the learning process of my reading and writing experience. From learning the letters of the alphabet to actually being able to form sentences and placing my thoughts into words, I have learned the correct usage of reading and writing. But I didn’t understand the different concept of what it means to read and write until my senior year of high school. My AP English teacher taught me what it means to read and analyze work to not just overlook what the author has written.
The three arguments are gear towards how texting effects the child’s English abilities and academics. Obviously, the essay is catering towards English teachers and arguments they would deem important. All English teachers would want to know how texting effects the child’s reading and writing skills, two key skills an English teacher would want to pass on. All English teachers would want to prevent cheating in a classroom setting. All English teachers would want a child to be comfortable to writing.
The Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2) is a formal assessment designed to assess students in Kindergarten through eighth grade. It provides educators with two different kits, K-3 and 4-8, to use for assessment. The K-3 kit is used with students in primary grades to observe, document, and assess reading skills over time. This assessment yields students’ information about reading engagement, oral reading fluency, and comprehension through the administration of this assessment. The DRA2 provides formative information about student’s independent and instructional reading level, which will better inform the teacher in the areas in which helps to inform areas of instruction that would be beneficial.
These strategies can include additional elements of a balanced approach. The reading of a book aloud in a classroom setting and pointing at words as the words are spoken aloud provides students with the opportunity to see the spoken word in written context. Konza (2014, 154) notes in some research, oral language is excluded as a key element in learning to read. Although research suggests that oral language difficulties can lead to reading difficulties, therefore it is an important element. Once students understand oral language teachers can commence with working on
After analyzing the student’s reading assessments, list two reading skill deficits and explain why you selected these as deficits using information from the reading assessments. Be sure to include assessment data in your justification. Skill Deficit #1:
In this part, the researcher gives a review of selected studies which were carried out in Arab and foreign countries and which are related to the multi sensory approach. Kinney (2013) determined if a multi sensory approach to reading instruction would be effective, as well as engaging, for students in educational first grade classroom. The first level involved classroom study incorporating multimodal approach to guided reading and group instruction and the second phase measured engagement of iPad usage during multi sensory word study instruction. Multimodal approaches can be used for meaningful engagement for literacy instruction for all students. Literacy support activities were linked to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of explicit sight word instruction on reading speed of elementary EFL students. Sight words are generally well-defined as those words that are not decodable by Ordinary English phonics instructions and that appear often in text (Hood, 1977). These words are found in 50-70% of written texts (Harris & Sipay, 1975). Additionally, all three theoretic methods to reading instruction—synthetic (Chall, 1970), authentic (Goodman, 1986) and interactive (Rumelhart, 1994)—obviously address the significance of inserting sight word in reading instruction. Although many learners are able to recognize words accurately, they spend extreme time and energy in the process of word recognition, which may lead to a breakdown of comprehension.
Discuss what Brown and Deavers learned about the relationship between children learning to read English and grain sizes? What strategies were the children developing and how did this help them? (12) According to the article, Brown and Deavers found a majority of small grain size answers for the less skilled readers and a majority of large grain size answers for the skilled readers. This statement shows that reading acquisition begins with small units. Their idea was that the children in their study were developing both small unit and large unit sub lexical recoding strategies.
By implementing literature circle all the students are reading at their level and with people from their level. Forming reading level groups, will help those students that need extra time reading to take their time and be helped by those of their level. Also, it helps advance readers will be challenge with a higher level of vocabulary that will be introduce in the reading. In classes I have observe this method of teacher is implied, but all students are reading the same books. The only different were the reading assignments were modified based on their academic level.
This was to help students understand that written language is meaningful, gain an understanding of text structures, and see what fluid reading looks and sounds like (Bainbridge & Heydon, 2017). The purpose of the read-aloud was also to help students work on the three receptive dimensions of language and literacy(Listening, Reading, Viewing). Along with the read-aloud, students were to bring in an artifact to share with the class. The purpose of this was to help them relate their lives to the story. When students see a connection between themselves and a character, they seem to enjoy reading more than when they do not see a connection.