Okara Glycine Max

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LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Okara, Glycine Max From the past study, according to (Préstamo et al., 2007), the researcher claimed the composition of okara and its effects of okara on growth, cecal fermentation, and serum lipids in rats, to assess the nutrition of okara as a food ingredient with high nutrition. Firstly, the okara was freeze-dried (Virtis Benchtop 3L freeze-drier) and milled to a particle size of less than 1.0 mm before analysis. The protein, fiber, fat content, and ash content were being analyzed. The moisture content of okara was determined by weight loss after oven-drying to a constant weight at 105 ◦C while total nitrogen was determined using the micro-Kjeldahl method thus, the protein was calculated as nitrogen × 5.71. Furthermore,…show more content…
The research is about the feeding of fermented potato pulp in diets fed to the growing, early finishing and late-finishing pigs. Because of little information regarding the use of okara fed to the hamster, the research by using okara must be done. By Li et al, (2011) the research had started by analyzing the fermented potato pulp first. The process of fermentation converts the starch and sugars of potato pulp into volatile fatty acids, alcohol and lactic acid (Prescott et al., 1996). Different weight of pigs was used in this research. Each treatment will be fed by either 0 or 5% fermented potato pulp. All treatments and all ratio of fermented potato pulp have shown improvements on total nutrient digestibility, improve the livestock performance (Canibe et al., 2008), increase the feed conversion ratio, but did not affect on the carcass characteristics. Moreover, fermented potato pulp also decreased the amount and concentration of ammonia in the swine feces as the fermentation of protein was reduced in the gastrointestinal system, Li et al., (2011). Besides, when the ammonia concentration in the feces is reduced, this can minimize the environmental effects and the pollution as the feces will contaminate at the ground and the surface waters. As the conclusion, the feeding of fermented potato pulp can be as the alternative ways to the pig farmers…show more content…
According to Chompreeda et al.,( 1984), fermentation also will increase the nutrients and amino acids such as lysine, methionine, and tryptophan in the blends. Besides, by fermentation also we can reduce antinutritional factors such as glycinin and β-conglycinin and also will eliminating trypsin inhibitors (Feng et al., 2007). By Chhompreeda et al., (1984), fermentation process also will be reduced raffinose and stachyose in soybean meal that increases nutrient digestibility in the fermented sample. Fermentation of okara are not only highly digestible and contain important nutrients such as calcium, vitamin A, and B vitamins, but fermented okara also has functional properties, such as immunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects (Lee, 1998). Moreover, since fermented feed can improve the palatability and digestibility of soy protein, it is a very promising processing method for the industry (Wolfswinkel,

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