Marx sees this exploitation as conflict, a conflict of interest as the proletariat or working-class produce the wealth but only receive a wage. This wage is only a small percentage of the wealth or value they produce. This value according to Marx is the surplus value, this is the value over what the proletariat receives as wages. This surplus value again for Marx is where the exploitation lies as the proletariat will always be exploited. Capitalism makes the working class into a class of exploited workers.
He also criticizes the capitalists in European economics. These people collect factories and raw materials for production, pay their laborers wages to produce goods, and as a result produce a profit due to good calculations. Although he says this is the rational thing to do to make more money, it is exploiting lower class laborers. Labor becomes an object, a type of commodity, instead of something people do. Consequently, laborers become an object and lose their humanity.
“The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”. Karl Marx used the word “struggle” repeatedly for the social changes in describing how society move forward. In his theory, a commodity is something that is bought and sold, or exchanged in a market. It has a “use – value” determined by the qualities of things and the purposes or needs because the commodity can satisfy human’s need and it also has a “exchange – value” determined by quantities of things and what can be gotten for them. As use – values, commodities have all of different qualities, but in terms of exchange – values, they are just different quantities and do not contain the use – value.
The concept of cultural production is very much discussed by many theorists under the context of capitalism. According to Marx, the ideology and values of the ruling class is spread to the working class through what Engels called, the “false consciousness”. Marx posited that the control of the ruling class over the means of production includes not only the production of goods but also the production of ideas, values and beliefs. The working class suffers from “false consciousness” in that they are beckon to believe that the dominant ideology is in the best interest of the entire society. Through this phrase of “false consciousness”, the realities of exploitation and domination are concealed and obscured, thus allowing the ideology and values
‘Marx saw all social life as bearing the imprints of material conditions’ (Ritzer 2002:107) 3, workers are alienated from others and their natural environment. In this alienated type of work place, workers are not only indifferent but are continually in competition which replaces forms of cooperation, everyone tries to survive as best they can. Like the capitalist who controls the workers productivity while maximising their own profits for only their benefit as capitalists are in competition of what they sell and not in the interest of the workers.4 lastly the worker is alienated from their each individual creativity and we
The labor of workers becomes a commodity that only profits the owner. Marx compares the worker to the owner using the terms proletariat and bourgeoisie. Because of the structure of capitalism, there is always an intrinsic conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. Capitalism demystifies human relationships, “the bourgeoisie has torn away from the family its sentimental veil, and has reduced the family relation to a mere money relation” (Marx 161). Once the labor of a worker is no longer needed, they will be dismissed
Private property is the byproduct of division of labor. Surplus expropriation is the exploitation of workers’ labor to create profit. Marx believed it distorts the natural work processes is the expropriation of surplus wealth by the capitalists at the expense of the worker. Workers generate most of the wealth; yet receive only a small portion. The owners of production pay their workers less than the value of their labor, usually enough to maintain
It is necessary to analyse the value of the commodity labour power to know the origin of the surplus value. Labour power is a commodity but the labour itself is now a commodity. The capitalist hires the worker to come to his factory on a certain day to perform a certain task which is set for him. The capitalist is buying the workers capacity to work or it can be said as he is buying the labour power. It doesn’t take into account the expenditure of brain and muscle power which actually constitute the labour until he is set to work.
Employer perspective: There is a wide disparity of views among the employers whether contract labour is engaged for flexibility or as cost saving mechanism. One of the main benefits, next to cost savings, for hiring contract labor involves the ease of separation. They can engage these labour without having to extend fringe benefits, such as leave wages, employees state insurance or provident fund contribution and bonus The contract labour need not be considered as bargaining unit, thereby minimizing the problems of industrial relations. Through contract system, employers seek to make the employment relationship between the principal employer and contract worker indirect. They thereby evade the responsibility and extract bigger